Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences 1st edition

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Gregory J. Privitera
Publisher: SAGE Publications


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  • Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics
    • 1.1: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
    • 1.2: Statistics in Research
    • 1.3: Scales of Measurement
    • 1.4: Types of Data
    • 1.5: Research in Focus: Types of Data and Scales of Measurement
    • 1.6: SPSS in Focus: Entering and Defining Variables
    • 1: End-of-Chapter Problems (8)

  • Chapter 2: Summarizing Data: Tables, Graphs, and Distributions
    • 2.1: Why Summarize Data?
    • 2.2: Frequency Distributions for Grouped Data
    • 2.3: SPSS in Focus: Frequency Distributions for Quantitative Data
    • 2.4: Frequency Distributions for Ungrouped Data
    • 2.5: Research in Focus: Summarizing Demographic Information
    • 2.6: SPSS in Focus: Frequency Distributions for Categorical Data
    • 2.7: Pictorial Frequency Distributions
    • 2.8: Graphing Distributions: Continuous Data
    • 2.9: Graphing Distributions: Discrete and Categorical Data
    • 2.10: Research in Focus: Frequencies and Percents
    • 2.11: SPSS in Focus: Histograms, Bar Charts, and Pie Charts
    • 2: End-of-Chapter Problems (10)

  • Chapter 3: Summarizing Data: Central Tendency
    • 3.1: Introduction to Central Tendency
    • 3.2: Measures of Central Tendency
    • 3.3: Characteristics of the Mean
    • 3.4: Choosing an Appropriate Measure of Central Tendency
    • 3.5: Research in Focus: Describing Central Tendency
    • 3.6: SPSS in Focus: Mean, Median, and Mode
    • 3: End-of-Chapter Problems (10)

  • Chapter 4: Summarizing Data: Variability
    • 4.1: Measuring Variability
    • 4.2: The Range
    • 4.3: Research in Focus: Reporting the Range
    • 4.4: Quartiles and Interquartiles
    • 4.5: The Variance
    • 4.6: Explaining Variance for Populations and Samples
    • 4.7: The Computational Formula for Variance
    • 4.8: The Standard Deviation
    • 4.9: What Does the Standard Deviation Tell Us?
    • 4.10: Characteristics of the Standard Deviation
    • 4.11: SPSS in Focus: Range, Variance, and Standard Deviation
    • 4: End-of-Chapter Problems (11)

  • Chapter 5: Probability
    • 5.1: Introduction to Probability
    • 5.2: Calculating Probability
    • 5.3: Probability and Relative Frequency
    • 5.4: The Relationship Between Multiple Outcomes
    • 5.5: Conditional Probabilities and Bayes' Theorem
    • 5.6: SPSS in Focus: Probability Tables
    • 5.7: Probability Distributions
    • 5.8: The Mean of a Probability Distribution and Expected Value
    • 5.9: Research in Focus: When Are Risks Worth Taking?
    • 5.10: The Variance and Standard Deviation of a Probability Distribution
    • 5.11: Expected Value and the Binomial Distribution
    • 5.12: A Final Thought on the Likelihood of Random Behavioral Outcomes
    • 5: End-of-Chapter Problems (10)

  • Chapter 6: Probability and Normal Distributions
    • 6.1: The Normal Distribution in Behavioral Science
    • 6.2: Characteristics of the Normal Distribution
    • 6.3: Research in Focus: The Statistical Norm
    • 6.4: The Standard Normal Distribution
    • 6.5: The Unit Normal Table: A Brief Introduction
    • 6.6: Locating Proportions
    • 6.7: Locating Scores
    • 6.8: SPSS in Focus: Converting Raw Scores to Standard z-Scores
    • 6.9: Going From Binomial to Normal
    • 6.10: The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution
    • 6: End-of-Chapter Problems (11)

  • Chapter 7: Probability and Sampling Distributions
    • 7.1: Selecting Samples From Populations
    • 7.2: Selecting a Sample: Who's in and Who's out?
    • 7.3: Sampling Distributions: The Mean
    • 7.4: Sampling Distributions: The Variance
    • 7.5: The Standard Error of the Mean
    • 7.6: Factors that Decrease Standard Error
    • 7.7: SPSS in Focus: Estimating the Standard Error of the Mean
    • 7.8: APA in Focus: Reporting the Standard Error
    • 7.9: Standard Normal Transformations With Sampling Distributions
    • 7: End-of-Chapter Problems (10)

  • Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing
    • 8.1: Inferential Statistics and Hypothesis Testing
    • 8.2: Four Steps to Hypothesis Testing
    • 8.3: Hypothesis Testing and Sampling Distributions
    • 8.4: Making a Decision: Types of Error
    • 8.5: Testing a Research Hypothesis: Examples Using the z-Test
    • 8.6: Research in Focus: Directional Versus Nondirectional Tests
    • 8.7: Measuring the Size of an Effect: Cohen's d
    • 8.8: Effect Size, Power, and Sample Size
    • 8.9: Additional Factors That Increase Power
    • 8.10: SPSS in Focus: A Preview for Chapters 9 to 18
    • 8.11: APA in Focus: Reporting the Test Statistic and Effect Size
    • 8: End-of-Chapter Problems (8)

  • Chapter 9: Testing Means: Independent Sample t-Tests
    • 9.1: Going From z to t
    • 9.2: The Degrees of Freedom
    • 9.3: Reading the t-Table
    • 9.4: One-Independent Sample t-Test
    • 9.5: Effect Size for the One-Independent Sample t Test
    • 9.6: SPSS in Focus: One-Independent Sample t-Test
    • 9.7: Two-Independent Sample t-Test
    • 9.8: Effect Size for the Two-Independent Sample t-Test
    • 9.9: SPSS in Focus: Two-Independent Sample t-Test
    • 9.10: APA in Focus: Reporting the t-Statistic and Effect Size
    • 9: End-of-Chapter Problems (10)

  • Chapter 10: Testing Means: Related Samples t-Test
    • 10.1: Related and Independent Samples
    • 10.2: Introduction to the Related Samples t-Test
    • 10.3: Related Samples t-Test: Repeated-Measures Design
    • 10.4: SPSS in Focus: The Related Samples t-Test
    • 10.5: Related Samples t-Test: Matched-Pairs Design
    • 10.6: Measuring Effect Size for the Related Samples t-Test
    • 10.7: Advantages for Selecting Related Samples
    • 10.8: APA in Focus: Reporting the t-Statistic and Effect Size for Related Samples
    • 10: End-of-Chapter Problems (11)

  • Chapter 11: Estimation and Confidence Intervals
    • 11.1: Point Estimation and Interval Estimation
    • 11.2: The Process of Estimation
    • 11.3: Estimation for the One-Independent Sample z-Test
    • 11.4: Estimation for the One-Independent Sample t-Test
    • 11.5: SPSS in Focus: Confidence Intervals for the One-Independent Sample t-Test
    • 11.6: Estimation for the Two-Independent Sample t-Test
    • 11.7: SPSS in Focus: Confidence Intervals for the Two-Independent Sample t-Test
    • 11.8: Estimation for the Related Samples t-Test
    • 11.9: SPSS in Focus: Confidence Intervals for the Related Samples t-Test
    • 11.10: Characteristics of Estimation: Precisions and Certainty
    • 11.11: APA in Focus: Reporting Confidence Intervals
    • 11: End-of-Chapter Problems (10)

  • Chapter 12: Analysis of Variance: One-Way Between-Subjects Design
    • 12.1: Increasing k: A Shift to Analyzing Variance
    • 12.2: An Introduction to Analysis of Variance
    • 12.3: Sources of Variation and the Test Statistic
    • 12.4: Degrees of Freedom
    • 12.5: The One-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA
    • 12.6: What Is the Next Step?
    • 12.7: Post Hoc Comparisons
    • 12.8: SPSS in Focus: The One-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA
    • 12.9: Measuring Effect Size
    • 12.10: APA in Focus: Reporting the F Statistic, Significance, and Effect Size
    • 12: End-of-Chapter Problems (10)

  • Chapter 13: Analysis of Variance: One-Way Within-Subjects Design
    • 13.1: Observing the Same Participants Across Groups
    • 13.2: Sources of Variation and the Test Statistic
    • 13.3: Degrees of Freedom
    • 13.4: The One-Way Within-Subjects ANOVA
    • 13.5: Post Hoc Comparison: Bonferroni Procedure
    • 13.6: SPSS in Focus: The One-Way Within-Subjects ANOVA
    • 13.7: Measuring Effect Size
    • 13.8: The Within-Subjects Design: Consistency and Power
    • 13.9: APA in Focus: Reporting the F Statistic, Significance, and Effect Size
    • 13: End-of-Chapter Problems (10)

  • Chapter 14: Analysis of Variance: Two-Way Between-Subjects Factorial Design
    • 14.1: Observing Two Factors at the Same Time
    • 14.2: New Terminology and Notation
    • 14.3: Designs for the Two-Way ANOVA
    • 14.4: Describing Variability: Main Effects and Interactions
    • 14.5: The Two-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA
    • 14.6: Analyzing Main Effects and Interactions
    • 14.7: Measuring Effect Size
    • 14.8: SPSS in Focus: The Two-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA
    • 14.9: APA in Focus: Reporting Main Effects, Interactions, and Effect Size
    • 14: End-of-Chapter Problems (10)

  • Chapter 15: Correlation
    • 15.1: Treating Factors as Dependent Measures
    • 15.2: Describing a Correlation
    • 15.3: Pearson Correlation Coefficient
    • 15.4: SPSS in Focus: Pearson Correlation Coefficient
    • 15.5: Assumptions of Tests for Linear Correlations
    • 15.6: Limitations in Interpretation: Causality, Outliers, and Restrictions of Range
    • 15.7: Alternative to Pearson r: Spearman Correlation Coefficient
    • 15.8: SPSS in Focus: Spearman Correlation Coefficient
    • 15.9: Alternative to Pearson r: Point-Biserial Correlation Coefficient
    • 15.10: SPSS in Focus: Point-Biserial Correlation Coefficient
    • 15.11: Alternative to Pearson r: Phi Correlation Coefficient
    • 15.12: SPSS in Focus: Phi Correlation Coefficient
    • 15.13: APA in Focus: Reporting Correlations
    • 15: End-of-Chapter Problems (12)

  • Chapter 16: Linear Regression
    • 16.1: From Relationships to Predictions
    • 16.2: Fundamentals of Linear Regression
    • 16.3: What Makes the Regression Line the Best-Fitting Line?
    • 16.4: The Slope and y Intercept of a Straight Line
    • 16.5: Using the Method of Least Squares to Find the Best Fit
    • 16.6: Using Analysis of Regression to Measure Significance
    • 16.7: SPSS in Focus: Analysis of Regression
    • 16.8: Using the Standard Error of Estimate to Measure Accuracy
    • 16.9: Multiple Regression
    • 16.10: APA in Focus: Reporting Regression Analysis
    • 16: End-of-Chapter Problems (10)

  • Chapter 17: Nonparametric Tests: Chi-Square Tests
    • 17.1: Tests for Nominal Data
    • 17.2: The Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test
    • 17.3: SPSS in Focus: The Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test
    • 17.4: Interpreting the Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test
    • 17.5: Independent Observations and Expected Frequency Size
    • 17.6: The Chi-Square Test for Independence
    • 17.7: The Relationship Between Chi-Square and the Phi Coefficient
    • 17.8: Measures of Effect Size
    • 17.9: SPSS in Focus: The Two-Way Chi-Square Test for Independence
    • 17.10: APA in Focus: Reporting the Chi-Square Test
    • 17: End-of-Chapter Problems (10)

  • Chapter 18: Nonparametric Tests: Tests for Ordinal Data
    • 18.1: Tests for Ordinal Data
    • 18.2: The Sign Test
    • 18.3: SPSS in Focus: The Related Samples Sign Test
    • 18.4: The Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks T Test
    • 18.5: SPSS in Focus: The Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks T Test
    • 18.6: The Mann-Whitney U Test
    • 18.7: SPSS in Focus: The Mann-Whitney U Test
    • 18.8: The Kruskal-Wallis H Test
    • 18.9: SPSS in Focus: The Kruskal-Wallis H Test
    • 18.10: The Friedman Test
    • 18.11: SPSS in Focus: The Friedman Test
    • 18.12: APA in Focus: Reporting Nonparametric Tests
    • 18: End-of-Chapter Problems (9)

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Group Quantity Questions
Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics
1.E 8 005 009 011 019 021 025 027 031
Chapter 2: Summarizing Data: Tables, Graphs, and Distributions
2.E 10 005 011 015 019 021 025 027 031 033 037
Chapter 3: Summarizing Data: Central Tendency
3.E 10 001 007 009 011 013 015 019 021 027 029
Chapter 4: Summarizing Data: Variability
4.E 11 007 009 011 015 017 021 023 027 029 031 035
Chapter 5: Probability
5.E 10 007 009 011 013 019 021 025 029 031 033
Chapter 6: Probability and Normal Distributions
6.E 11 009 011 013 015 017 019 021 023 025 027 029
Chapter 7: Probability and Sampling Distributions
7.E 10 011 013 015 017 019 021 023 025 027 031
Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing
8.E 8 009 011 015 019 021 023 025 029
Chapter 9: Testing Means: Independent Sample t-Tests
9.E 10 003 009 011 013 015 017 019 021 025 031
Chapter 10: Testing Means: Related Samples t-Test
10.E 11 003 009 013 015 017 019 021 023 025 027 029
Chapter 11: Estimation and Confidence Intervals
11.E 10 011 015 017 019 021 023 025 027 031 033
Chapter 12: Analysis of Variance: One-Way Between-Subjects Design
12.E 10 003 011 013 015 021 023 025 027 031 033
Chapter 13: Analysis of Variance: One-Way Within-Subjects Design
13.E 10 003 011 013 015 019 021 023 025 027 031
Chapter 14: Analysis of Variance: Two-Way Between-Subjects Factorial Design
14.E 10 005 013 015 017 019 021 023 025 031 033
Chapter 15: Correlation
15.E 12 003 011 013 017 019 021 023 025 027 029 031 033
Chapter 16: Linear Regression
16.E 10 001 013 015 017 019 021 023 025 027 031
Chapter 17: Nonparametric Tests: Chi-Square Tests
17.E 10 005 007 013 015 017 019 021 023 025 031
Chapter 18: Nonparametric Tests: Tests for Ordinal Data
18.E 9 001 009 013 015 019 023 025 027 029
Total 180