physPad Reference
You can enter the following notation in physPad®.
Alternative notations for trigonometric functions such as arcsin and sin^{1} are graded identically.
Notation 
Keyboard 
Button Group 
Button 

Decimal numbers 
0123456789.  
Fractions 
/ 
Operations 

Variables 
Type variables exactly as specified in the question. Variable names are displayed in italics. Variables are casesensitive. You can't substitute x for X. 

Addition 
+  
Subtraction 
  
Multiplication 
*  
Division 
/ to enter a fraction, or use the keyboard
shortcut for your operating
system: Windows®: alt + 0247 

Parentheses 
(
The closing parenthesis is added automatically. 
Sets 

Set delimiters (braces) 
{
The closing brace is added automatically. 
Sets 

Closed interval (brackets) 
[a,b
The closing bracket is added automatically. 
Sets 

Open interval (parentheses) 
(a,b
The closing parenthesis is added automatically. 
Sets 

Halfclosed interval (halfopen interval) 
[a,b)
You can substitute ( or ] as needed. 
Sets 
or 
Empty set 
empty 
Sets 

Union 
union 
Sets 

Intersection 
intersect 
Sets 

Square root 
sqrt 
Operations 

Exponent 
^ 
Operations 

Factorial 
n! 
Operations 

Base or subscript 
n_b 
Operations 

Exponent and subscript of a variable 
n_b→^x 
Operations 

nth root 
Operations 


Absolute value 
 The closing vertical bar is added automatically. 
Operations 

Exponential function 
e^ 
Operations 

Natural logarithm 
ln 
Operations 

Power of 10 
10^ 
Operations 

Logarithm (base 10) 
log 
Operations 

General Log 
log←_base→operand 
Operations 

pi 
pi 
Symbols 

theta 
theta 
Symbols 

Infinity 
infinity 
Symbols 

Does not exist 
DNE 
Symbols 

Undefined 
UNDEFINED 
Symbols 

Imaginary unit 
i Typing i displays the i without bolding, but grades correctly. 
Symbols 

Script l 
Symbols 


Script E 
Symbols 


Overline 
Symbols 


hbar 
hbar 
Symbols 

Perpendicular 
Symbols 


Parallel 
Symbols 


Equal 
= 
Relations 

Greater than 
> 
Relations 

Greater than or equal to 
>= 
Relations 

Less than 
< 
Relations 

Less than or equal to 
<= 
Relations 

No solution 
NOSOLUTION 
Relations 

Sine 
sin 
Trig 

Cosine 
cos 
Trig 

Tangent 
tan 
Trig 

Cosecant 
csc 
Trig 

Secant 
sec 
Trig 

Cotangent 
cot 
Trig 

Inverse sine 
arcsin 
Trig 

Inverse cosine 
arccos 
Trig 

Inverse tangent 
arctan 
Trig 

Inverse cosecant 
arccsc 
Trig 

Inverse secant 
arcsec 
Trig 

Inverse cotangent 
arccot 
Trig 

Hyperbolic sine 
sin←h→ 
Trig 

Hyperbolic cosine 
cos←h→ 
Trig 

Hyperbolic tangent 
tan←h→ 
Trig 

Hyperbolic cosecant 
csc←h→ 
Trig 

Hyperbolic secant 
sec←h→ 
Trig 

Hyperbolic cotangent 
cot←h→ 
Trig 

Inverse hyperbolic sine 
arcsin←h→ 
Trig 

Inverse hyperbolic cosine 
arccosh←h→ 
Trig 

Inverse hyperbolic tangent 
arctanh←h→ 
Trig 

Inverse hyperbolic cosecant 
arccsch←h→ or csc←h^1→→ 
Trig 

Inverse hyperbolic secant 
arcsech←h→ 
Trig 

Inverse hyperbolic cotangent 
arccoth←h→ 
Trig 

Bold vector 
Vectors 


Vector bracket 
Vectors 


Arrow vector 
Vectors 


i unit vector 
Vectors 


j unit vector 
Vectors 


k unit vector 
Vectors 


Unit vector (hat vector) 
Vectors 


Lowercase Greek letter 
Name of the letter in lowercase, for example, alpha, beta, gamma. 
Greek 

Uppercase Greek letter 
Capitalized name of the letter, for example, Alpha, Beta, Gamma. 
Greek 