Biology 8th edition

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Neil Campbell and Jane Reece
Publisher: Pearson Education


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  • Chapter 1: Biology is the scientific inquiry about life and living organisms.
    • 1.1: Biology concepts are linked by themes. (5)
    • 1.2: Evolution creates the unity and diversity of life. (5)
    • 1.3: Forms of scientific inquiry (5)

  • Chapter 2: Chemicals both make up organisms and are used by them.
    • 2.1: Chemical components of matter (3)
    • 2.2: Properties of elements (5)
    • 2.3: Molecules are formed by atoms bonding to one another. (11)
    • 2.4: Chemical bonds formed and broken by chemical reactions. (2)

  • Chapter 3: Water is essential for life.
    • 3.1: Hydrogen bonds are responsible for polarity of water molecules. (2)
    • 3.2: Life depends on properties of water. (11)
    • 3.3: Living organisms are sensitive to acidic and basic conditions. (11)

  • Chapter 4: Carbon atoms are essential structural elements of life.
    • 4.1: Carbon compounds are studied in organic chemistry. (2)
    • 4.2: Carbon atoms form bonds to make different kinds of molecules. (9)
    • 4.3: Certain functional groups determine properties of biological molecules. (9)

  • Chapter 5: Four types of macromolecules determine the complexity of life.
    • 5.1: Monomers can bond to form polymers that are macromolecules. (4)
    • 5.2: Carbohydrates provide energy and building materials. (2)
    • 5.3: Lipids are hydrophobic molecules providing energy and structural materials. (5)
    • 5.4: Proteins are complex molecules with many forms and functions. (5)
    • 5.5: Nucleic acids carry and transfer heritable information. (4)

  • Chapter 6: Cells are the basic structural and functional units of all living organisms.
    • 6.1: Scientists use microscopes and biochemistry to study cells. (1)
    • 6.2: Internal membranes form compartments in eukaryotic cells. (3)
    • 6.3: Hereditary information is stored in the nucleus and interpreted by cytoplasmic ribosomes. (3)
    • 6.4: Protein transport and other metabolic functions are regulated by internal membranous organelles in eukaryotic cells. (4)
    • 6.5: Energy is converted to different forms within mitochondria and chloroplasts. (3)
    • 6.6: The cytoskeleton supports and organizes structures and functions within a cell. (4)
    • 6.7: Intercellular connections and materials aid in coordinating cellular functions. (3)

  • Chapter 7: Phospholipid membranes control the passage of materials in and out of cells and between compartments within cells.
    • 7.1: Cell membranes are mosaics made of lipids and proteins. (9)
    • 7.2: Cell membranes are selectively permeable. (1)
    • 7.3: Diffusion is passive transport through a membrane. (4)
    • 7.4: Active transport requires energy to move substances against a concentration gradient. (5)
    • 7.5: Endocytosis and exocytosis move substances across the cell membrane by bulk transport. (1)

  • Chapter 8: Metabolism regulates the use of matter and energy needed for life proesse.
    • 8.1: Metabolism regulates matter and energy transformations per laws of thermodynamics. (7)
    • 8.2: Free energy change determines whether a reaction occurs spontaneously. (3)
    • 8.3: ATP couples exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions to drive cellular processes. (3)
    • 8.4: Metabolic processes are speeded by enzymes that lower energy requirements. (4)
    • 8.5: Metabolism is regulated by enzymes. (3)

  • Chapter 9: Cellular respiration uses stored chemical energy to generate ATP for cellular work.
    • 9.1: Oxidizing organic fuels provides energy for catabolic pathways. (6)
    • 9.2: Oxidation of glucose to pyruvate yields chemical energy in glycolysis. (3)
    • 9.3: Energy is produced by oxidation of organic molecules in the citric acid cycle. (2)
    • 9.4: Chemosmosis couples electron transport with ATP synthesis in oxidative phosphorylation. (5)
    • 9.5: Cells produce ATP without oxygen by fermentation and anaerobic respiration. (2)
    • 9.6: Numerous metabolic pathways are connected with glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. (2)

  • Chapter 10: Photosynthesis powers life on earth.
    • 10.1: Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy (4)
    • 10.2: Solar energy is converted into chemical energy of ATP and NADPH in the light reactions (10)
    • 10.3: ATP and NADPH provide energy to reduce CO2 to glucose in the Calvin Cycle (2)
    • 10.4: Plants in arid environments have evolved alternate methods of fixing carbon (4)

  • Chapter 11: Cells communicate by external signals.
    • 11.1: Cellular responses are mediated by external signals. (5)
    • 11.2: Binding of signal molecule changes shape of receptor. (4)
    • 11.3: Transduction (2)
    • 11.4: Regulation of transcription and cytoplasmic activities. (7)
    • 11.5: Apoptosis involves many signalling pathways. (2)

  • Chapter 12: Cell division enables the continuity of life.
    • 12.1: Cell division produces genetically identical daughter cells. (5)
    • 12.2: Mitosis and interphase alternate during the cell cycle. (9)
    • 12.3: Cell cycle regulation in eukaryotic cells (6)

  • Chapter 13: Genetic traits are inherited with variation.
    • 13.1: Genes pass from parents to offspring via chromosomes. (3)
    • 13.2: Sexual life cycles include alternation of meiosis and fertilization. (6)
    • 13.3: Chromosome number is reduced from diploid to haploid in meiosis. (10)
    • 13.4: Relationship of genetic variation and evolution (2)

  • Chapter 14: Hereditary traits are transmitted through discrete units called genes.
    • 14.1: Mendel discovered two fundamental laws of heredity. (6)
    • 14.2: Simple Mendelian inheritance follows principles of probability. (3)
    • 14.3: More complicated heredity patterns. (5)
    • 14.4: Human genetic traits often show Mendialian patterns. (6)

  • Chapter 15: Chromosomes provide the physical basis of inheritance.
    • 15.1: Chromosome behavior is the basis of Mendelian inheritance. (3)
    • 15.2: Sex linked inheritance (4)
    • 15.3: Inheritance of linked genes (5)
    • 15.4: Genetic disorders from chromosomal abnormalities (6)
    • 15.5: Exceptional patterns of inheritance (2)

  • Chapter 16: DNA provides the molecular basis of heredity.
    • 16.1: Search for the molecular carrier of hereditary information (7)
    • 16.2: Role of proteins in DNA replication and repair (11)
    • 16.3: DNA packaging in eukaryotic chromosomes (2)

  • Chapter 17: Genes are expressed in the synthesis of specific proteins.
    • 17.1: Role of transcription and translation in protein synthesis (2)
    • 17.2: Transcription and RNA synthesis (4)
    • 17.3: Post-transcription modification (4)
    • 17.4: Translation and polypeptide synthesis (7)
    • 17.5: Effects of point mutations (2)
    • 17.6: Gene expression among the three domains of life (1)

  • Chapter 18: Cells exert control over the expression of their genes.
    • 18.1: Bacteria control transcription in response to local chemical changes. (7)
    • 18.2: Regulating gene expressin in eukaryotic cells (4)
    • 18.3: Role of non-coding RNA's in gene expression (2)
    • 18.4: Differential gene expression during cellular differentiatiion (4)
    • 18.5: Control of the cell cycle and cancer (3)

  • Chapter 19: Viruses show some characteristics of living organisms but are not considered to be living.
    • 19.1: Parts of a virus (1)
    • 19.2: Viral Reproduction (12)
    • 19.3: Pathogenic viruses, viroids, and prions (7)

  • Chapter 20: Biotechnology is the application of DNA technology.
    • 20.1: Cloning produces many copies of a gene or gene sequence. (10)
    • 20.2: DNA research methods (4)
    • 20.3: Cloning organisms (3)
    • 20.4: Important applications of Biotechnology (3)

  • Chapter 21: Genomics is the study of genomes, their composition, their functions, and their evolution.
    • 21.1: Genom sequencing methods (3)
    • 21.2: Bioinformatics in genome studies (3)
    • 21.3: Genome variation (2)
    • 21.4: Genomes of multicellular eukaryotes (5)
    • 21.5: Factors contributing to genome evolution (4)
    • 21.6: Seeking clues to evolutionary history by comparing genome sequences (3)

  • Chapter 22: Evolutionary change results from natural processes causing changes in genetic composition of populations over time.
    • 22.1: Darwin's work challenged traditional ideas of non-changing species. (5)
    • 22.2: Adaptation and natural selection (9)
    • 22.3: Evidence for evolution (8)

  • Chapter 23: Natural selection acts on populations enabling fitter offspring to survive and multiply.
    • 23.1: Genetic variation contributes to evolution (5)
    • 23.2: Genetic equilibrium and the Hardy-Weinberg equation (5)
    • 23.3: Causes of change in allele frequency (7)
    • 23.4: Natural selection and adaptive evolution (4)

  • Chapter 24: Darwin provided an explanation how new species arise.
    • 24.1: Reproductive isolation is important for the establishment of a new species. (9)
    • 24.2: Geographic isolation and species formation (5)
    • 24.3: Reconnection of previously separated populations (2)
    • 24.4: Rate of change and nature of genetic changes affect speciation (4)

  • Chapter 25: Life on Earth has a long evolutonary history.
    • 25.1: Life originated under specific conditions present on the early Earth. (3)
    • 25.2: The history of life is shown in the fossil record. (2)
    • 25.3: Origin of unicellular and multicellular organisms (4)
    • 25.4: Dominant groups of organisms change with major Earth changes (6)
    • 25.5: Genetic changes resulted in major changes in body form. (2)
    • 25.6: Evolution is non-directed. (3)

  • Chapter 26: Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a species or group of species.
    • 26.1: Phylogenies illustrate evolutonary kinships. (5)
    • 26.2: Phylogenies are derived from morphologial and molecular information. (1)
    • 26.3: Phylogenetlic trees are based on shared characters. (7)
    • 26.4: Genomes reflect the evolutionary history of an organism. (1)
    • 26.5: Evolutionary time and molecular clocks (2)
    • 26.6: Continuing revision of the tree of life (4)

  • Chapter 27: Prokaryotes are highly adaptable organisms.
    • 27.1: Adaptations contribute to the success of prokaryotes. (6)
    • 27.2: Genetic diversity in prokaryotes (2)
    • 27.3: Role of adaptations in nutrition and metabolic functions (8)
    • 27.4: Molecular studies reveal the phylogeny of prokaryotes
    • 27.5: Biological role of prokaryotes (3)
    • 27.6: Prokaryotes have both beneficial and harmful roles in nature. (1)

  • Chapter 28: Protists are a highly diverse group of small unicellular organisms.
    • 28.1: Most eukaryotes are unicellular. (3)
    • 28.2: Excacates are a clade with modified mitochondria and flagella. (4)
    • 28.3: Chromalveolaes are an ancient group possible evolved from red algae and their symbionts. (5)
    • 28.4: Rhizarians are a heterogeneous group linked by similarities in their DNA sequences. (2)
    • 28.5: Red and green algae appear to be the ancestors of land plants. (2)
    • 28.6: Unikonts appear to be most closely related to fungi and animals. (4)
    • 28.7: Protists have many ecological roles.

  • Chapter 29: Since arriving on land, terrestrial plants have adapted to many different environments.
    • 29.1: Land plants appear to have originated from green algae. (7)
    • 29.2: Gametophytes are prominent in the life cycles nonvascular plants. (5)
    • 29.3: Evolution of vascular tissues enabled ferns and other seedless plants to grow in height. (8)

  • Chapter 30: The evolution of seeds enabled seed plants to become dominant producers on land.
    • 30.1: Evolution of seeds and pollen were important to terrestrial life. (2)
    • 30.2: Naked seeds are produced by gymnosperms. (4)
    • 30.3: Angiosperm evolution involved flowers and fruits. (11)
    • 30.4: Seed plants are important to humans. (4)

  • Chapter 31: Fungi are a large,diverse group of heterotrophic eukaryotes with many important ecological roles.
    • 31.1: Fungi are heterotrophs. (6)
    • 31.2: Life cycles (5)
    • 31.3: Ancestry of fungi (4)
    • 31.4: Fungal diversity (4)
    • 31.5: Ecological diversity (1)

  • Chapter 32: Animals are a diverse group of multicellular eukaryotes.
    • 32.1: Structure and functions of animals (5)
    • 32.2: Evolutionary history of animals (2)
    • 32.3: Animal body plans (4)
    • 32.4: Molecular clues to animal phylogeny (3)

  • Chapter 33: Invertebrates are highly diverse animals without a backbone that comprise 95% of all animals.
    • 33.1: Sponges are simple multicellular animals without tissues. (7)
    • 33.2: Cnidarians are simple two layered eumetazoans. (2)
    • 33.3: Lophotrochozoans are a diverse group llinked by molecular evidence. (6)
    • 33.4: Ecdysozoans (8)
    • 33.5: Deuterostomes include the echinoderms and chordates. (3)

  • Chapter 34: Vertebrates include all animals with a vertebra or backbone.
    • 34.1: Chordates are animals with a notochord and a dorsal hollow nerve cord. (3)
    • 34.2: Craniates are chordates with a formed head. (1)
    • 34.3: Vertebrates are chordates with a backbone or vertebral colulmn. (1)
    • 34.4: Gnathostomes are chordates with jaws. (4)
    • 34.5: Tetrapods have limbs. (2)
    • 34.6: Amniotes have eggs adapted for survival on land. (3)
    • 34.7: Mammals have hair and mammary glands. (3)
    • 34.8: Humans are mammals with a large brain and walk on two legs. (2)

  • Chapter 35: The plant body is made up of organs, tissues and cells.
    • 35.1: The plant body is made up of organs, tissues and cells. (10)
    • 35.2: Meristems and plant growth
    • 35.3: Primary growth: lengthening of plant body (4)
    • 35.4: Secondary growth (2)
    • 35.5: Mechanisms of plant growth (2)

  • Chapter 36: Acquiring and distributing resource materials in vascular plant.
    • 36.1: How land plants get resources (2)
    • 36.2: Transport mechanisms (7)
    • 36.3: Transport of water and minerals (3)
    • 36.4: Transpiration rates are controlled by stomata. (4)
    • 36.5: Transport of sugars in phloem (4)
    • 36.6: Symplasts play an important role in plant transport.

  • Chapter 37: Soil provides water and other essential materials for plant growth.
    • 37.1: Dynamic nature of soil (5)
    • 37.2: Essential elements for plant life (6)
    • 37.3: Nutritional interactiond between plants and other organisms (9)

  • Chapter 38: Reproduction of flowering plants usually involves other organisms and/or special environmental factors.
    • 38.1: Complexity and unique features of angiosperm life cycles (15)
    • 38.2: Sexual and asexual reproduction (2)
    • 38.3: Genetic engineering of plants (2)

  • Chapter 39: Plants respond to both internal and external signals.
    • 39.1: Signal pathways (3)
    • 39.2: Hormonal control in plants (9)
    • 39.3: Light responses (4)
    • 39.4: Plant responses to other external stimuli (2)
    • 39.5: Responses to herbivores and pathogens (2)

  • Chapter 40: Natural selection has favored adaptations of form and function better adapted to changing environmental conditions.
    • 40.1: Structure and function of animal bodies are closely connected at all levels. (12)
    • 40.2: Regulation of internal environmental (1)
    • 40.3: Thermoregulation (4)
    • 40.4: Determinants of energy needs (3)

  • Chapter 41: The nutritional requirements of an animal are determined by its adaptations for survival.
    • 41.1: Dietary requirements of animals include chemical energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients (6)
    • 41.2: Principal stages of food processing (5)
    • 41.3: The mammalian digestion has a longitudinal series of organs specialized for different digestive processes. (7)
    • 41.4: Diet and adaptations of the digestive system
    • 41.5: Energy balance and homeostasis (2)

  • Chapter 42: Respiration and circulation in animals are closely linked processes.
    • 42.1: Circulatory systems carry oxygen, carbon dioxide and waste materials to and from cells and respiratory surfaces. (6)
    • 42.2: Regulation of heart contractions power mammalian circulation. (2)
    • 42.3: Blood pressure and blood flow are influenced by blood vessel structure. (3)
    • 42.4: Blood constituents and blood functions (3)
    • 42.5: Mechanisms of gas exchange (3)
    • 42.6: Mechanisms of breathing
    • 42.7: Adaptations for respiration (3)

  • Chapter 43: The immune system defends the body against many kinds of pathogens.
    • 43.1: Innate immunity is active immediately without prior exposure to the invading pathogen. (2)
    • 43.2: Aquired immunity and the role of lymphocytes (9)
    • 43.3: Role of acquired immunity in defense against infection (5)
    • 43.4: Disorders of the immune system (4)

  • Chapter 44: Osmoregulation and waste removal are essential functions for maintaining an appropriate interior fluid balance without accumulation of toxic wastes.
    • 44.1: Balancing water intake and loss (10)
    • 44.2: Nitrogen wastes vary among different animal types. (3)
    • 44.3: Diversity of excretory systems (4)
    • 44.4: Organization of the nephron (2)
    • 44.5: Endocrine control of osmoregulation, excretion, and blood pressure (1)

  • Chapter 45: Hormones are the agents of chemical signaling in animals.
    • 45.1: Binding of signaling molecules to receptors evokes specific responses. (8)
    • 45.2: Organization of the endocrine system (3)
    • 45.3: Independent and interactive actions of nervous and endocrine systems (5)
    • 45.4: Endocrine role in regulation in animal physiology (4)

  • Chapter 46: Animals have evolved numerous methods of asexual and sexual reproduction.
    • 46.1: Asexual and sexual reproduction among animals (3)
    • 46.2: Adaptations to facilitate fertilization (3)
    • 46.3: Female and male human reproductive systems (3)
    • 46.4: Sexual differences in meiosis in male and female mammals (1)
    • 46.5: Hormonal regulation of mammalian reproduction (5)
    • 46.6: Embryonic development in placental mammals (5)

  • Chapter 47: Embryonic development is a complex process in which a fertilized egg is transformed into a new functional animal.
    • 47.1: Early embryonic events include fertilizaton, cleavage, gastrulation, and organogenesis. (11)
    • 47.2: Morphogenetic events in development (3)
    • 47.3: Determination of the fate of embryonic cells (5)

  • Chapter 48: Signaling in the nervous system includes both electrical signals carried along neurons and chemical signals carried between adjacent neurons.
    • 48.1: Structure and function of neurons (5)
    • 48.2: Physiology of the resting potential (2)
    • 48.3: Gated ion channels and the action potential (6)
    • 48.4: Synaptic transmission mechanism (6)

  • Chapter 49: The nervous system of animals enables communication among the cells and organs of the body.
    • 49.1: Organization of the nervous system (14)
    • 49.2: Regional specialization of the brain
    • 49.3: Cerebral cortex (7)
    • 49.4: Roles of synapses in memory and learning
    • 49.5: Chemical basis of nervous disorders

  • Chapter 50: Sensory information received by sensors is carried to the central nervous system where signals are processed and motor signals are sent to effectors to activate responses.
    • 50.1: Stimulated sensory receptors send signals to the central nervous system. (9)
    • 50.2: Hearing and equiibrium (2)
    • 50.3: Taste and smell (3)
    • 50.4: Similarities of vision among animals (3)
    • 50.5: Mechanisms of muscle function (2)
    • 50.6: Skeletal components and movement (1)

  • Chapter 51: Animal behavior is the reaction of an animal to a stimulus that evokes a response that serves to increase the animal's chances of survival.
    • 51.1: Different stimuli can evoke simple or complex behavioral responses. (9)
    • 51.2: Learning connects experience with behavior. (5)
    • 51.3: Genetic and environmental factors shape animal behavior. (1)
    • 51.4: Most behaviors contribute to enhanced survival. (2)
    • 51.5: Inclusive fitness and alturistic behavior (3)

  • Chapter 52: Ecology is an interdisciplinary field encompassing many fields of study of the interactions among organisms and their environment.
    • 52.1: Ecological studies provide the basis for environmental decisions. (5)
    • 52.2: The distribution of organisms is influenced by many environmental factors. (4)
    • 52.3: Diversity of aquatic biomes (5)
    • 52.4: Climate and disturbances are major influences in terrestrial biomes. (4)

  • Chapter 53: Population ecology is the study of populations and their interactions with each other and with their environment.
    • 53.1: Population density and dispersal. (6)
    • 53.2: Natural selection and life history patterns (2)
    • 53.3: Exponential population growth (3)
    • 53.4: Logistical growth model and carrying capacity (3)
    • 53.5: Density dependent factors have an important influence on population growth. (2)
    • 53.6: Human population growth (4)

  • Chapter 54: An ecological community includes a group of local populations interacting with each other and with their environment.
    • 54.1: Classificaton of community interactions (9)
    • 54.2: Dominant and keystone species (6)
    • 54.3: Community composition and diversity are influenced by disturbances. (2)
    • 54.4: Influence of biogeographic factors (3)
    • 54.5: Applications of community ecology to studies of pathology and human diseases.

  • Chapter 55: An ecosystem consists of an interacting group of populations and communities and their environment.
    • 55.1: Energy flow and cycling of materials (4)
    • 55.2: Primary production is regulated by energy supply and other factors. (6)
    • 55.3: Limitation of energy transfer between trophic levels (5)
    • 55.4: Biogeochemical cycling (3)
    • 55.5: Human effects on chemical cycling (2)

  • Chapter 56: Conservation biology is a multidisciplinary science focused on understanding and preserving biodiversity.
    • 56.1: Impact of human activities on biodiversity (8)
    • 56.2: Population conservation (4)
    • 56.3: Landscape conservation (4)
    • 56.4: Restoration ecology (3)
    • 56.5: Sustainable development (1)

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Group Quantity Questions
Chapter 1: Biology is the scientific inquiry about life and living organisms.
1.1 5 001 002 003 004 005
1.2 5 001 002 003 004 005
1.3 5 001 002 003 004 005
Chapter 2: Chemicals both make up organisms and are used by them.
2.1 3 001 002 003
2.2 5 001 002 003 004 005
2.3 11 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011
2.4 2 001 002
Chapter 3: Water is essential for life.
3.1 2 001 002
3.2 11 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011
3.3 11 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011
Chapter 4: Carbon atoms are essential structural elements of life.
4.1 2 001 002
4.2 9 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009
4.3 9 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009
Chapter 5: Four types of macromolecules determine the complexity of life.
5.1 4 001 002 003 004
5.2 2 001 002
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Chapter 6: Cells are the basic structural and functional units of all living organisms.
6.1 1 001
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Chapter 7: Phospholipid membranes control the passage of materials in and out of cells and between compartments within cells.
7.1 9 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009
7.2 1 001
7.3 4 001 002 003 004
7.4 5 001 002 003 004 005
7.5 1 001
Chapter 8: Metabolism regulates the use of matter and energy needed for life proesse.
8.1 7 001 002 003 004 005 006 007
8.2 3 001 002 003
8.3 3 001 002 003
8.4 4 001 002 003 004
8.5 3 001 002 003
Chapter 9: Cellular respiration uses stored chemical energy to generate ATP for cellular work.
9.1 6 001 002 003 004 005 006
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9.3 2 001 002
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Chapter 10: Photosynthesis powers life on earth.
10.1 4 001 002 003 004
10.2 10 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010
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Chapter 11: Cells communicate by external signals.
11.1 5 001 002 003 004 005
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Chapter 12: Cell division enables the continuity of life.
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Chapter 13: Genetic traits are inherited with variation.
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Chapter 14: Hereditary traits are transmitted through discrete units called genes.
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Chapter 15: Chromosomes provide the physical basis of inheritance.
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Chapter 16: DNA provides the molecular basis of heredity.
16.1 7 001 002 003 004 005 006 007
16.2 11 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011
16.3 2 001 002
Chapter 17: Genes are expressed in the synthesis of specific proteins.
17.1 2 001 002
17.2 4 001 002 003 004
17.3 4 001 002 003 004
17.4 7 001 002 003 004 005 006 007
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17.6 1 001
Chapter 18: Cells exert control over the expression of their genes.
18.1 7 001 002 003 004 005 006 007
18.2 4 001 002 003 004
18.3 2 001 002
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18.5 3 001 002 003
Chapter 19: Viruses show some characteristics of living organisms but are not considered to be living.
19.1 1 001
19.2 12 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012
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Chapter 20: Biotechnology is the application of DNA technology.
20.1 10 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010
20.2 4 001 002 003 004
20.3 3 001 002 003
20.4 3 001 002 003
Chapter 21: Genomics is the study of genomes, their composition, their functions, and their evolution.
21.1 3 001 002 003
21.2 3 001 002 003
21.3 2 001 002
21.4 5 001 002 003 004 005
21.5 4 001 002 003 004
21.6 3 001 002 003
Chapter 22: Evolutionary change results from natural processes causing changes in genetic composition of populations over time.
22.1 5 001 002 003 004 005
22.2 9 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009
22.3 8 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008
Chapter 23: Natural selection acts on populations enabling fitter offspring to survive and multiply.
23.1 5 001 002 003 004 005
23.2 5 001 002 003 004 005
23.3 7 001 002 003 004 005 006 007
23.4 4 001 002 003 004
Chapter 24: Darwin provided an explanation how new species arise.
24.1 9 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009
24.2 5 001 002 003 004 005
24.3 2 001 002
24.4 4 001 002 003 004
Chapter 25: Life on Earth has a long evolutonary history.
25.1 3 001 002 003
25.2 2 001 002
25.3 4 001 002 003 004
25.4 6 001 002 003 004 005 006
25.5 2 001 002
25.6 3 001 002 003
Chapter 26: Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a species or group of species.
26.1 5 001 002 003 004 005
26.2 1 001
26.3 7 001 002 003 004 005 006 007
26.4 1 001
26.5 2 001 002
26.6 4 001 002 003 004
Chapter 27: Prokaryotes are highly adaptable organisms.
27.1 6 001 002 003 004 005 006
27.2 2 001 002
27.3 8 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008
27.5 3 001 002 003
27.6 1 001
Chapter 28: Protists are a highly diverse group of small unicellular organisms.
28.1 3 001 002 003
28.2 4 001 002 003 004
28.3 5 001 002 003 004 005
28.4 2 001 002
28.5 2 001 002
28.6 4 001 002 003 004
Chapter 29: Since arriving on land, terrestrial plants have adapted to many different environments.
29.1 7 001 002 003 004 005 006 007
29.2 5 001 002 003 004 005
29.3 8 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008
Chapter 30: The evolution of seeds enabled seed plants to become dominant producers on land.
30.1 2 001 002
30.2 4 001 002 003 004
30.3 11 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011
30.4 4 001 002 003 004
Chapter 31: Fungi are a large,diverse group of heterotrophic eukaryotes with many important ecological roles.
31.1 6 001 002 003 004 005 006
31.2 5 001 002 003 004 005
31.3 4 001 002 003 004
31.4 4 001 002 003 004
31.5 1 001
Chapter 32: Animals are a diverse group of multicellular eukaryotes.
32.1 5 001 002 003 004 005
32.2 2 001 002
32.3 4 001 002 003 004
32.4 3 001 002 003
Chapter 33: Invertebrates are highly diverse animals without a backbone that comprise 95% of all animals.
33.1 7 001 002 003 004 005 006 007
33.2 2 001 002
33.3 6 001 002 003 004 005 006
33.4 8 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008
33.5 3 001 002 003
Chapter 34: Vertebrates include all animals with a vertebra or backbone.
34.1 3 001 002 003
34.2 1 001
34.3 1 001
34.4 4 001 002 003 004
34.5 2 001 002 003
34.6 3 001 002 003
34.7 3 001 002 003
34.8 2 001 002
Chapter 35: The plant body is made up of organs, tissues and cells.
35.1 10 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010
35.3 4 001 002 003 004 005
35.4 2 001 002
35.5 2 001 002
Chapter 36: Acquiring and distributing resource materials in vascular plant.
36.1 2 001 002
36.2 7 001 002 003 004 005 006 007
36.3 3 001 002 003
36.4 4 001 002 003 004
36.5 4 001 002 003 004
Chapter 37: Soil provides water and other essential materials for plant growth.
37.1 5 001 002 003 004 005
37.2 6 001 002 003 004 005 006
37.3 9 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009
Chapter 38: Reproduction of flowering plants usually involves other organisms and/or special environmental factors.
38.1 15 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016
38.2 2 001 002
38.3 2 001 002
Chapter 39: Plants respond to both internal and external signals.
39.1 3 001 002 003
39.2 9 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009
39.3 4 001 002 003 004
39.4 2 001 002
39.5 2 001 002
Chapter 40: Natural selection has favored adaptations of form and function better adapted to changing environmental conditions.
40.1 12 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012
40.2 1 001
40.3 4 001 002 003 004
40.4 3 001 002 003
Chapter 41: The nutritional requirements of an animal are determined by its adaptations for survival.
41.1 6 001 002 003 004 005 006
41.2 5 001 002 003 004 005
41.3 7 001 002 003 004 005 006 007
41.5 2 001 002
Chapter 42: Respiration and circulation in animals are closely linked processes.
42.1 6 001 002 003 004 005 006
42.2 2 001 002
42.3 3 001 002 003
42.4 3 001 002 003
42.5 3 001 002 003
42.7 3 001 002 003
Chapter 43: The immune system defends the body against many kinds of pathogens.
43.1 2 001 002
43.2 9 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009
43.3 5 001 002 003 004 005
43.4 4 001 002 003 004
Chapter 44: Osmoregulation and waste removal are essential functions for maintaining an appropriate interior fluid balance without accumulation of toxic wastes.
44.1 10 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010
44.2 3 001 002 003
44.3 4 001 002 003 004
44.4 2 001 002
44.5 1 001
Chapter 45: Hormones are the agents of chemical signaling in animals.
45.1 8 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008
45.2 3 001 002 003
45.3 5 001 002 003 004 005
45.4 4 001 002 003 004
Chapter 46: Animals have evolved numerous methods of asexual and sexual reproduction.
46.1 3 001 002 003
46.2 3 001 002 003
46.3 3 001 002 003
46.4 1 001
46.5 5 001 002 003 004 005
46.6 5 001 002 003 004 005
Chapter 47: Embryonic development is a complex process in which a fertilized egg is transformed into a new functional animal.
47.1 11 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012
47.2 3 001 002 003
47.3 5 001 002 003 004 005
Chapter 48: Signaling in the nervous system includes both electrical signals carried along neurons and chemical signals carried between adjacent neurons.
48.1 5 001 002 003 004 005
48.2 2 001 002
48.3 6 001 002 003 004 005 006
48.4 6 001 002 003 004 005 006
Chapter 49: The nervous system of animals enables communication among the cells and organs of the body.
49.1 14 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014
49.3 7 001 002 003 004 005 006 007
Chapter 50: Sensory information received by sensors is carried to the central nervous system where signals are processed and motor signals are sent to effectors to activate responses.
50.1 9 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009
50.2 2 001 002
50.3 3 001 002 003
50.4 3 001 002 003
50.5 2 001 002
50.6 1 001
Chapter 51: Animal behavior is the reaction of an animal to a stimulus that evokes a response that serves to increase the animal's chances of survival.
51.1 9 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009
51.2 5 001 002 003 004 005
51.3 1 001
51.4 2 001 002
51.5 3 001 002 003
Chapter 52: Ecology is an interdisciplinary field encompassing many fields of study of the interactions among organisms and their environment.
52.1 5 001 002 003 004 005
52.2 4 001 002 003 004 005
52.3 5 001 002 003 004 005
52.4 4 001 002 003 004 005
Chapter 53: Population ecology is the study of populations and their interactions with each other and with their environment.
53.1 6 001 002 003 004 005 006
53.2 2 001 002
53.3 3 001 002 003
53.4 3 001 002 003
53.5 2 001 002
53.6 4 001 002 003 004
Chapter 54: An ecological community includes a group of local populations interacting with each other and with their environment.
54.1 9 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009
54.2 6 001 002 003 004 005 006
54.3 2 001 002
54.4 3 001 002 003
Chapter 55: An ecosystem consists of an interacting group of populations and communities and their environment.
55.1 4 001 002 003 004
55.2 6 001 002 003 004 005 006
55.3 5 001 002 003 004 005
55.4 3 001 002 003
55.5 2 001 002
Chapter 56: Conservation biology is a multidisciplinary science focused on understanding and preserving biodiversity.
56.1 8 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008
56.2 4 001 002 003 004
56.3 4 001 002 003 004
56.4 3 001 002 003
56.5 1 001
Total 1119 (6)