Chemistry: The Science in Context 2009 edition

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Thomas R. Gilbert, Rein V. Kirss, Natalie Foster and Geoffrey Davies
Publisher: W. W. Norton


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  • Chapter 1: Matter, Energy, and the Origins of the Universe
    • 1: Visual Problems (2)
    • 1: Matter (8)
    • 1: The Scientific Method: Starting Off with a Bang
    • 1: Making Measurements and Expressing the Results; Unit Conversions and Dimensional Analysis (26)
    • 1: Testing a Hypothesis: The Big Bang Revisited (8)
    • 1: Additional Problems (7)
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems (11)

  • Chapter 2: Atoms, Ions, and Compounds
    • 2: Visual Problems
    • 2: Dalton's View of Matter (1)
    • 2: The Rutherford Model of Atomic Structure
    • 2: Isotopes; Average Atomic Masses (8)
    • 2: The Periodic Table of the Elements; Trends in Compound Formation (12)
    • 2: Naming Compounds and Writing Their Formulas (19)
    • 2: Nucleosynthesis (3)
    • 2: Additional Problems (5)
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems (1)

  • Chapter 3: Chemical Reactions and Earth's Composition
    • 3: Visual Problems
    • 3: Composition of Earth
    • 3: The Mole (24)
    • 3: Writing Balanced Chemical Equations (6)
    • 3: Combustion Reactions; Stoichiometric Calculations and the Carbon Cycle (10)
    • 3: Determining Empirical Formulas from Percent Composition; Empirical and Molecular Formulas Compared (8)
    • 3: Combustion Analysis (2)
    • 3: Limiting Reactants and Percent Yield (7)
    • 3: Additional Problems (4)
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems (2)

  • Chapter 4: Solution Chemistry and the Hydrosphere
    • 4: Visual Problems
    • 4: Solution Concentration and Molarity (17)
    • 4: Dilutions (6)
    • 4: Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes (3)
    • 4: Acid-Base Reactions (3)
    • 4: Precipitation Reactions (10)
    • 4: Ion Exchange
    • 4: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions (11)
    • 4: Titrations (6)
    • 4: Additional Problems
    • 4: Calcium: In the Limelight
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems (8)

  • Chapter 5: Thermochemistry
    • 5: Visual Problems (1)
    • 5: Energy: Basic Concepts and Definitions
    • 5: Systems, Surroundings, and the Flow of Energy (12)
    • 5: Enthalpy and Enthalpy Changes (5)
    • 5: Heating Curves and Heat Capacity (8)
    • 5: Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Capacity and Calorimeter Constants (6)
    • 5: Enthalpies of Formation and Enthalpies of Reaction (7)
    • 5: Fuel Values and Food Values (4)
    • 5: Hess's Law (3)
    • 5: Additional Problems (14)
    • 5: Carbon: Diamonds, Graphite, and the Molecules of Life (1)
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems (3)

  • Chapter 6: Properties of Gases: The Air We Breathe
    • 6: Visual Problems
    • 6: The Gas Phase; Atmospheric Pressure (4)
    • 6: The Gas Laws (16)
    • 6: The Ideal Gas Law (16)
    • 6: Gas Density (3)
    • 6: Dalton's Law and Mixtures of Gases (9)
    • 6: The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases and Graham's Law (9)
    • 6: Real Gases (4)
    • 6: Additional Problems (12)
    • 6: Nitrogen: Feeding Plants and Inflating Air Bags
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems

  • Chapter 7: Electrons in Atoms and Periodic Properties
    • 7: Visual Problems (3)
    • 7: Waves of Light (5)
    • 7: Atomic Spectra
    • 7: Particles of Light and Quantum Theory (9)
    • 7: The Hydrogen Spectrum and the Bohr Model (5)
    • 7: Electrons as Waves (4)
    • 7: Quantum Numbers and Electron Spin; The Sizes and Shapes of Atomic Orbitals (7)
    • 7: The Periodic Table and Filling the Orbitals of Multielectron Atoms; Electron Configurations of Ions (12)
    • 7: The Sizes of Atoms and Ions (1)
    • 7: Ionization Energies
    • 7: Additional Problems (1)
    • 7: A Noble Family: Special Status for Special Behavior
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems (11)

  • Chapter 8: Chemical Bonding and Atmospheric Molecules
    • 8: Visual Problems (1)
    • 8: Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonds; An Introduction to Lewis Theory (11)
    • 8: Unequal Sharing, Electronegativity, and Other Periodic Properties (5)
    • 8: Resonance (4)
    • 8: Formal Charges: Choosing among Lewis Structures (6)
    • 8: Exceptions to the Octet Rule (10)
    • 8: The Length and Strength of Bonds (7)
    • 8: Additional Problems (6)
    • 8: Fluorine and Oxygen: Location, Location, Location
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems (10)

  • Chapter 9: Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories
    • 9: Visual Problems
    • 9: Molecular Shape; Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR) (13)
    • 9: Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules (7)
    • 9: Valence Bond Theory (4)
    • 9: Shapes and Bonding in Larger Molecules (2)
    • 9: Molecular Orbital (MO) Theory; A Bonding Retrospective (10)
    • 9: Additional Problems (11)
    • 9: From Alcohol to Asparagus: The Nose Knows (1)
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems (3)

  • Chapter 10: Forces between Ions and Molecules and Colligative Properties
    • 10: Visual Problems
    • 10: Sea Spray and Salts (3)
    • 10: Interactions Involving Polar Molecules (4)
    • 10: Interactions Involving Nonpolar Molecules (2)
    • 10: Real Gases Revisited (2)
    • 10: Polarity and Solubility (5)
    • 10: Vapor Pressure (2)
    • 10: Phase Diagrams: Intermolecular Forces at Work (8)
    • 10: The Remarkable Behavior of Water and Properties of Liquids (2)
    • 10: Colligative Properties of Solutions (8)
    • 10: Measuring the Molar Mass of a Solute Using Colligative Properties (1)
    • 10: Additional Problems (4)
    • 10: The Halogens: The Salt of the Earth
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems (5)

  • Chapter 11: The Chemistry of Solids
    • 11: Visual Problems (3)
    • 11: Metallic Bonds and Conduction Bands (2)
    • 11: Semimetals and Semiconductors (4)
    • 11: Metallic Crystals (8)
    • 11: Alloys (7)
    • 11: The Structures of Some Nonmetals (1)
    • 11: Salt Crystals: Ionic Solids (4)
    • 11: Ceramics: Insulators to Superconductors (1)
    • 11: X-ray Diffraction: How We Know Crystal Structures (6)
    • 11: Additional Problems (4)
    • 11: Silicon, Silica, Silicates, Silicone: What's in a Name?
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems

  • Chapter 12: Organic Chemistry: Fuels and Materials
    • 12: Visual Problems (7)
    • 12: Carbon: The Scope of Organic Chemistry (3)
    • 12: Hydrocarbons (8)
    • 12: Sources of Alkanes (4)
    • 12: Alkenes and Alkynes (4)
    • 12: Aromatic Compounds (3)
    • 12: Alcohols, Ethers, and Reformulated Gasoline (3)
    • 12: More Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups: Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, Esters, Amides (8)
    • 12: Hydrocarbon Fuels from Biomass (3)
    • 12: Additional Problems (5)
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems (21)

  • Chapter 13: Thermodynamics: Spontaneous Processes, Entropy, and Free Energy
    • 13: Visual Problems (3)
    • 13: Spontaneous Processes and Entropy; Thermodynamic Entropy (7)
    • 13: Absolute Entropy, the Third Law of Thermodynamics, and Structure (3)
    • 13: Calculating Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions (2)
    • 13: Free Energy and Free-Energy Change (13)
    • 13: Driving the Human Engine: Coupled Reactions (1)
    • 13: Additional Problems (6)
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems (12)

  • Chapter 14: Chemical Kinetics
    • 14: Visual Problems (4)
    • 14: Cars, Trucks, and Air Quality (1)
    • 14: Reaction Rates (6)
    • 14: Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rate (17)
    • 14: Reaction Rates, Temperature, and the Arrhenius Equation (4)
    • 14: Reaction Mechanisms (3)
    • 14: Catalysis (1)
    • 14: Additional Problems (5)
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems

  • Chapter 15: Chemical Equilibrium
    • 15: Visual Problems
    • 15: Understanding Equilibrium: A Qualitative View (2)
    • 15: The Equilibrium Constant Expression and K (12)
    • 15: Manipulating Equilibrium Constant Expressions (7)
    • 15: Equilibrium Constants and Reaction Quotients (2)
    • 15: Equilibrium and Thermodynamics (2)
    • 15: Heterogeneous Equilibria
    • 15: Le Châtelier's Principle (2)
    • 15: Calculations Based on K (12)
    • 15: Changing Kwith Changing Temperature (1)
    • 15: Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems

  • Chapter 16: Equilibrium in the Aqueous Phase
    • 16: Visual Problems
    • 16: Acids and Bases and the Brønsted-Lowry Model (6)
    • 16: pH and the Autoionization of Water (7)
    • 16: Calculations with pH and K (6)
    • 16: Polyprotic Acids (8)
    • 16: Acid Strength and Molecular Structure (1)
    • 16: pH of Salt Solutions (3)
    • 16: The Common-Ion Effect and pH Buffers (7)
    • 16: Acid-Base Titrations and Indicators
    • 16: Additional Problems (2)
    • 16: The Chemistry of Two Strong Acids: Sulfuric and Nitric Acids (3)
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems (7)

  • Chapter 17: The Colorful Chemistry of Transition Metals
    • 17: Visual Problems (4)
    • 17: Lewis Acids and Bases (5)
    • 17: Complex Ions (3)
    • 17: Complex-Ion Equilibria (3)
    • 17: Hydrated Metal Ions as Acids (5)
    • 17: Solubilities of Ionic Compounds and Ksp (6)
    • 17: Polydentate Ligands; Ligand Strength and the Chelation Effect
    • 17: Crystal Field Theory (3)
    • 17: Magnetism and Spin States (6)
    • 17: Naming Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds (3)
    • 17: Isomerism in Coordination Compounds; Metal Complexes in Biomolecules (2)
    • 17: Additional Problems (3)
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems

  • Chapter 18: Electrochemistry and Electric Vehicles
    • 18: Visual Problems (2)
    • 18: Redox Chemistry Revisited; Electrochemical Cells (3)
    • 18: Chemical Energy and Electrical Work (2)
    • 18: Standard Potentials (E°) (7)
    • 18: A Reference Point: The Standard Hydrogen Electrode; The Effect of Concentration on Ecell (8)
    • 18: Relating Battery Capacity to Quantities of Reactants (2)
    • 18: Electrolytic Cells and Rechargeable Batteries (8)
    • 18: Fuel Cells
    • 18: Additional Problems (3)
    • 18: Power, Pigments, and Phosphors: The Group 12 Elements (4)
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems (10)

  • Chapter 19: Biochemistry: The Compounds of Life
    • 19: Visual Problems (6)
    • 19: Biomolecules: Building Blocks of Life (2)
    • 19: Chirality (6)
    • 19: Protein Composition; Protein Structure and Function (8)
    • 19: Carbohydrates (2)
    • 19: Lipids (1)
    • 19: Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids (3)
    • 19: Additional Problems (4)
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems

  • Chapter 20: Nuclear Chemistry
    • 20: Visual Problems
    • 20: Nuclear Chemistry; Radioactive Decay (3)
    • 20: Hydrogen Fusion; Nuclear Binding Energies (4)
    • 20: Synthesis of Heavy Elements (3)
    • 20: The Belt of Stability (6)
    • 20: Artificial Nuclides (4)
    • 20: Nuclear Fission (3)
    • 20: Measuring Radioactivity; Biological Effects of Radioactivity (2)
    • 20: Medical Applications of Radionuclides (8)
    • 20: Radiochemical Dating (3)
    • 20: Additional Problems (4)
    • 20: Radon, Radium, and Uranium: Too Hot to Handle
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems (7)

  • Chapter 21: Life and the Periodic Table
    • 22: Visual Problems (6)
    • 21: The Periodic Table of Life (5)
    • 21: Essential Major Elements (4)
    • 21: Essential Trace and Ultratrace Elements (7)
    • 21: Diagnosis and Therapy (5)
    • 21: Toxic Elements (5)
    • Additional Problems
    • Additional Problems

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Group Quantity Questions
Chapter 1: Matter, Energy, and the Origins of the Universe
1.P 51 002 004 011 013 014 015 016 018 020 023 036 038 040 041 042 045 047 048 049 050 052 053 054 055 056 058 059 060 061 062 064 066 067 068 069 070 072 074 076 077 078 080 082 084 087 088 089 090 091 092 094
1.XP 11 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011
Chapter 2: Atoms, Ions, and Compounds
2.P 48 016 024 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 035 036 038 040 042 044 046 048 049 050 051 052 057 058 059 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 068 069 071 072 074 076 078 080 082 096 098 100 108 110 112 114
2.XP 1 001
Chapter 3: Chemical Reactions and Earth's Composition
3.P 61 011 012 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 028 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 038 044 046 048 050 051 052 056 058 059 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 072 074 076 078 080 082 084 086 092 094 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 114 116 132 135
3.XP 2 001 002
Chapter 4: Solution Chemistry and the Hydrosphere
4.P 56 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 020 022 023 024 025 026 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 039 041 042 052 054 056 064 065 068 069 070 071 072 073 074 075 082 084 088 090 092 094 096 098 102 104 106 108 109 110 111 112 113
4.XP 8 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008
Chapter 5: Thermochemistry
5.P 61 008 016 020 021 022 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 034 036 038 040 042 044 046 049 050 053 054 055 056 061 062 063 064 065 066 069 070 071 072 073 074 076 081 082 083 084 092 094 096 098 100 101 102 103 104 106 108 109 110 112 114 115 118 122
5.XP 3 001 002 003
Chapter 6: Properties of Gases: The Air We Breathe
6.P 73 031 032 033 034 043 044 045 046 051 052 053 054 055 056 057 058 061 062 063 064 066 068 069 070 071 072 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 080 081 082 088 090 092 095 097 098 099 100 101 102 108 109 120 122 124 126 128 129 130 132 134 136 140 141 142 144 145 146 148 150 154 156 160 162 163 164 165
Chapter 7: Electrons in Atoms and Periodic Properties
7.P 47 002 004 008 019 022 023 024 026 035 036 037 038 039 040 042 043 044 050 056 058 059 060 065 066 068 069 074 078 080 081 082 083 084 090 092 094 095 096 097 098 099 100 102 104 106 112 128
7.XP 11 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011
Chapter 8: Chemical Bonding and Atmospheric Molecules
8.P 50 014 032 033 033.mrv 036 037 039 039.mrv 040 041 047 047.mrv 050 055 056 057 058 062 064 067 067.mrv 074 078 079 079.mrv 081 081.mrv 090 092 094 094.mrv 098 098.mrv 100 101 102 104 109 110 112 118 120 124 128 130 134.mrv 144 144.mrv 156 166
8.XP 10 001 001.mrv 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009
Chapter 9: Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories
9.P 48 022 025 026 027 028 030 031 032 033 034 036.mrv 038.mrv 040 042 049 051 052 053 054 056 060 061 066.mrv 068.mrv 076 078 086 088 090 091 092 093 094 096 097 098 100.mrv 110 110.mrv 112 112.mrv 114 114.mrv 116 118 120 124 128
9.XP 3 001 002 003
Chapter 10: Forces between Ions and Molecules and Colligative Properties
10.P 41 016 018 020 024 026 033 034 035 040 042 044 056 058 059 060 063 076 078 083 086 088 089 091 092 093 094 099 105 123 126 127 128 130 132 138 145 154 163 166 169 171
10.XP 5 001 002 003 004 005
Chapter 11: The Chemistry of Solids
11.P 40 006 009 018 022 024 026 030 032 034 036 038 043 044 045 046 047 048 050 056 058 060 062 064 066 068 086 088 092 094 097 107 112 113 114 115 116 118 122 124 128
Chapter 12: Organic Chemistry: Fuels and Materials
12.P 48 004 006 008 011 012 014 014.mrv 018 021 022 024 028 034 034.mrv 036 038 040 042 048 049 050 052 055 060 064.mrv 066 076.mrv 077 078 082 084 086 092 097 098 099 100 104 106 108.mrv 116 116.mrv 118 121 128 128.mrv 136 136.mrv
12.XP 21 001 002 003 003.mrv 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020
Chapter 13: Thermodynamics: Spontaneous Processes, Entropy, and Free Energy
13.P 35 002 004 006 008 010 011 012 014 015 016 023 024 026 032 034 038 040 044 045 046 047 048 050 052 054 056 058 062 068 072 074 076 080 084 086
13.XP 12 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012
Chapter 14: Chemical Kinetics
14.P 41 002 008 012 014 020 028 030 032 034 036 038 046 048 050 052 054 056 058 060 062 064 066 067 068 069 070 072 074 078 084 086 088 096 098 104 114 120 122 124 128 128.mrv
Chapter 15: Chemical Equilibrium
15.P 40 015 016 019 020 022 024 025 026 028 030 031 032 034 036 039 040 042 044 045 046 048 054 056 070 072 086 087 093 095 096 098 099 101 102 103 106 107 109 110 117
Chapter 16: Equilibrium in the Aqueous Phase
16.P 43 010 014 016 018 020 022 027 028 030 031 032 033 034 049 050 053 054 055 056 059 060 061 062 063 064 065 066.mrv 070 074 079 080 083 084 086 088 090 092 094 114.mrv 122.mrv 128 132 136
16.XP 7 001 002 003 004 005 006 007
Chapter 17: The Colorful Chemistry of Transition Metals
17.P 43 002 004 006 008 014 014.mrv 016 016.mrv 018.mrv 020 022 024 029 030 031 034 041 042 043 044 050 056 058 060 063 064 076 078 080 083 084 085 086 088 090 092 094 096 102 104 105 106 107
Chapter 18: Electrochemistry and Electric Vehicles
18.P 39 002 008 014 015 016 022 024 032 033 034 038 040 042 043 046 047 048 052 053 054 056 058 062 064 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 080 087 090 092 094 096 100 102
18.XP 10 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010
Chapter 19: Biochemistry: The Compounds of Life
19.P 32 002.mrv 004 004.mrv 006 008 010 012 014 016 022 024 026 028 028.mrv 032 034 039 039.mrv 040 040.mrv 042 044.mrv 056 058 070 078.mrv 079 080 084 086 096 098
Chapter 20: Nuclear Chemistry
20.P 40 016 017 018 021 022 024 026 030 032 034 038 040 042 044 046 048 052 054 056 058 062 063 064 069 070 077 078 080 081 082 083 084 086 088 094 096 102 103 106 112
20.XP 7 001 002 003 004 005 006 007
Chapter 21: Life and the Periodic Table
21.P 32 002 004 006 008 008.mrv 010 015 016 017 018 019 030 032 034 036 048 049 050 052 055 056 058 074 075 076 078.mrv 080.mrv 088 090.mrv 092 093 094
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