The Science and Engineering of Materials, Enhanced 7th edition

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Donald R. Askeland and Wendelin J. Wright
Publisher: Cengage Learning

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  • Chapter 1: Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering
    • 1.1: What is Materials Science and Engineering? (1)
    • 1.2: Classification of Materials (7)
    • 1.3: Functional Classification of Materials
    • 1.4: Classification of Materials Based on Structure (1)
    • 1.5: Environmental and Other Effects (2)
    • 1.6: Materials Design and Selection (7)
    • 1: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 2: Atomic Structure
    • 2.1: The Structure of Materials: Technological Relevance (3)
    • 2.2: The Structure of the Atom (3)
    • 2.3: The Electronic Structure of the Atom (6)
    • 2.4: The Periodic Table (1)
    • 2.5: Atomic Bonding (11)
    • 2.6: Binding Energy and Interatomic Spacing (7)
    • 2.7: The Many Forms of Carbon: Relationships Between Arrangements of Atoms and Materials Properties
    • 2: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 3: Atomic and Ionic Arrangements
    • 3.1: Short-Range Order versus Long-Range Order (4)
    • 3.2: Amorphous Materials (2)
    • 3.3: Lattice, Basis, Unit Cells, and Crystal Structures (17)
    • 3.4: Allotropic or Polymorphic Transformations (5)
    • 3.5: Points, Directions, and Planes in the Unit Cell (20)
    • 3.6: Interstitial Sites (2)
    • 3.7: Crystal Structures of Ionic Materials (4)
    • 3.8: Covalent Structures (1)
    • 3.9: Diffraction Techniques for Crystal Structure Analysis (4)
    • 3: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 4: Imperfections in the Atomic and lonic Arrangements
    • 4.1: Point Defects (9)
    • 4.2: Other Point Defects (2)
    • 4.3: Dislocations (5)
    • 4.4: Significance of Dislocations (5)
    • 4.5: Schmid's Law (2)
    • 4.6: Influence of Crystal Structure (2)
    • 4.7: Surface Defects (9)
    • 4.8: Importance of Defects (3)
    • 4: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 5: Atom and Ion Movements in Materials
    • 5.1: Applications of Diffusion (2)
    • 5.2: Stability of Atoms and Ions (3)
    • 5.3: Mechanisms for Diffusion (1)
    • 5.4: Activation Energy for Diffusion (6)
    • 5.5: Rate of Diffusion (8)
    • 5.6: Factors Affecting Diffusion (1)
    • 5.7: Permeability of Polymers
    • 5.8: Composition Profile (16)
    • 5.9: Diffusion and Materials Processing (3)
    • 5: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 6: Mechanical Properties: Part One
    • 6.1: Technological Significance
    • 6.2: Terminology for Mechanical Properties
    • 6.3: The Tensile Test: Use of the Stress Strain Diagram
    • 6.4: Properties Obtained from the Tensile Test
    • 6.5: True Stress and True Strain
    • 6.6: The Bend Test for Brittle Materials
    • 6.7: Hardness of Materials
    • 6.8: Nanoindentation
    • 6.9: Strain Rate Effects and Impact Behavior
    • 6.10: Properties Obtained from the Impact Test
    • 6.11: Bulk Metallic Glasses and Their Mechanical Behavior
    • 6.12: Mechanical Behavior at Small Length Scales
    • 6.13: Rheology of Liquids
    • 6: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 7: Mechanical Properties: Part Two
    • 7.1: Fracture Mechanics
    • 7.2: The Importance of Fracture Mechanics
    • 7.3: Microstructural Features of Fracture in Metallic Materials
    • 7.4: Microstructural Features of Fracture in Ceramics, Glasses, and Composites
    • 7.5: Weibull Statistics for Failure Strength Analysis
    • 7.6: Fatigue
    • 7.7: Results of the Fatigue Test
    • 7.8: Application of Fatigue Testing
    • 7.9: Creep, Stress Rupture, and Stress Corrosion
    • 7.10: Evaluation of Creep Behavior
    • 7.11: Use of Creep Data
    • 7: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 8: Strain Hardening and Annealing
    • 8.1: Relationship of Cold Working to the Stress Strain Curve
    • 8.2: Strain-Hardening Mechanisms
    • 8.3: Properties versus Percent Cold Work
    • 8.4: Microstructure, Texture Strengthening, and Residual Stresses
    • 8.5: Characteristics of Cold Working
    • 8.6: The Three Stages of Annealing
    • 8.7: Control of Annealing
    • 8.8: Annealing and Materials Processing
    • 8.9: Hot Working
    • 8: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 9: Principles of Solidification
    • 9.1: Technological Significance
    • 9.2: Nucleation
    • 9.3: Applications of Controlled Nucleation
    • 9.4: Growth Mechanisms
    • 9.5: Solidification Time and Dendrite Size
    • 9.6: Cooling Curves
    • 9.7: Cast Structure
    • 9.8: Solidification Defects
    • 9.9: Casting Processes for Manufacturing Components
    • 9.10: Continuous Casting and Ingot Casting
    • 9.11: Directional Solidification [DS], Single Crystal Growth, and Epitaxial Growth
    • 9.12: Solidification of Polymers and Inorganic Glasses
    • 9.13: Joining of Metallic Materials
    • 9: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 10: Solid Solutions and Phase Equilibrium
    • 10.1: Phases and the Phase Diagram
    • 10.2: Solubility and Solid Solutions
    • 10.3: Conditions for Unlimited Solid Solubility
    • 10.4: Solid-Solution Strengthening
    • 10.5: Isomorphous Phase Diagrams
    • 10.6: Relationship Between Properties and the Phase Diagram
    • 10.7: Solidification of a Solid-Solution Alloy
    • 10.8: Nonequilibrium Solidification and Segregation
    • 10: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 11: Dispersion Strengthening and Eutectic Phase Diagrams
    • 11.1: Principles and Examples of Dispersion Strengthening
    • 11.2: Intermetallic Compounds
    • 11.3: Phase Diagrams Containing Three-Phase Reactions
    • 11.4: The Eutectic Phase Diagram
    • 11.5: Strength of Eutectic Alloys
    • 11.6: Eutectics and Materials Processing
    • 11.7: Nonequilibrium Freezing in the Eutectic System
    • 11.8: Nanowires and the Eutectic Phase Diagram
    • 11: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 12: Dispersion Strengthening by Phase Transformations and Heat Treatment
    • 12.1: Nucleation and Growth in Solid-State Reactions
    • 12.2: Alloys Strengthened by Exceeding the Solubility Limit
    • 12.3: Age or Precipitation Hardening and Its Applications
    • 12.4: Microstructural Evolution in Age or Precipitation Hardening
    • 12.5: Effects of Aging Temperature and Time
    • 12.6: Requirements for Age Hardening
    • 12.7: Use of Age-Hardenable Alloys at High Temperatures
    • 12.8: The Eutectoid Reaction
    • 12.9: Controlling the Eutectoid Reaction
    • 12.10: The Martensitic Reaction and Tempering
    • 12.11: The Shape-Memory Alloys
    • 12: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 13: Heat Treatment of Steels and Cast Irons
    • 13.1: Designations and Classification of Steels
    • 13.2: Simple Heat Treatments
    • 13.3: Isothermal Heat Treatments
    • 13.4: Quench and Temper Heat Treatments
    • 13.5: Effect of Alloying Elements
    • 13.6: Application of Hardenability
    • 13.7: Specialty Steels
    • 13.8: Surface Treatments
    • 13.9: Weldability of Steel
    • 13.10: Stainless Steels
    • 13.11: Cast Irons
    • 13: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 14: Nonferrous Alloys
    • 14.1: Aluminum Alloys
    • 14.2: Magnesium and Beryllium Alloys
    • 14.3: Copper Alloys
    • 14.4: Nickel and Cobalt Alloys
    • 14.5: Titanium Alloys
    • 14.6: Refractory and Precious Metals
    • 14: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 15: Ceramics
    • 15.1: Bonding in Ceramics
    • 15.2: Structures of Crystalline Ceramics
    • 15.3: Defects in Crystalline Ceramics
    • 15.4: Flaws in Ceramics
    • 15.5: Synthesis and Processing of Crystalline Ceramics
    • 15.6: Silica and Silicate Compounds
    • 15.7: Inorganic Glasses
    • 15.8: Glass-Ceramics
    • 15.9: Processing and Applications of Clay Products
    • 15.10: Refractories
    • 15.11: Other Ceramic Materials
    • 15: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 16: Polymers
    • 16.1: Classification of Polymers
    • 16.2: Addition and Condensation Polymerization
    • 16.3: Degree of Polymerization
    • 16.4: Typical Thermoplastics
    • 16.5: Structure—Property Relationships in Thermoplastics
    • 16.6: Effect of Temperature on Thermoplastics
    • 16.7: Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastics
    • 16.8: Elastomers
    • 16.9: Thermosetting Polymers
    • 16.10: Adhesives
    • 16.11: Polymer Processing and Recycling
    • 16: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 17: Composites: Teamwork and Synergy in Materials
    • 17.1: Dispersion-Strengthened Composites
    • 17.2: Particulate Composites
    • 17.3: Fiber-Reinforced Composites
    • 17.4: Characteristics of Fiber-Reinforced Composites
    • 17.5: Manufacturing Fibers and Composites
    • 17.6: Fiber-Reinforced Systems and Applications
    • 17.7: Laminar Composite Materials
    • 17.8: Examples and Applications of Laminar Composites
    • 17.9: Sandwich Structures
    • 17: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 18: Construction Materials
    • 18.1: The Structure of Wood
    • 18.2: Moisture Content and Density of Wood
    • 18.3: Mechanical Properties of Wood
    • 18.4: Expansion and Contraction of Wood
    • 18.5: Plywood
    • 18.6: Concrete Materials
    • 18.7: Properties of Concrete
    • 18.8: Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete
    • 18.9: Asphalt
    • 18: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 19: Electronic Materials
    • 19.1: Ohm's Law and Electrical Conductivity
    • 19.2: Band Structure of Solids
    • 19.3: Conductivity of Metals and Alloys
    • 19.4: Semiconductors
    • 19.5: Applications of Semiconductors
    • 19.6: General Overview of Integrated Circuit Processing
    • 19.7: Deposition of Thin Films
    • 19.8: Conductivity in Other Materials
    • 19.9: Insulators and Dielectric Properties
    • 19.10: Polarization in Dielectrics
    • 19.11: Electrostriction, Piezoelectricity, and Ferroelectricity
    • 19: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 20: Magnetic Materials
    • 20.1: Classification of Magnetic Materials
    • 20.2: Magnetic Dipoles and Magnetic Moments
    • 20.3: Magnetization, Permeability, and the Magnetic Field
    • 20.4: Diamagnetic, Paramagnetic, Ferromagnetic, Ferrimagnetic, and Superparamagnetic Materials
    • 20.5: Domain Structure and the Hysteresis Loop
    • 20.6: The Curie Temperature
    • 20.7: Applications of Magnetic Materials
    • 20.8: Metallic and Ceramic Magnetic Materials
    • 20: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 21: Photonic Materials
    • 21.1: The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    • 21.2: Refraction, Reflection, Absorption, and Transmission
    • 21.3: Selective Absorption, Transmission, or Reflection
    • 21.4: Examples and Use of Emission Phenomena
    • 21.5: Fiber-Optic Communications Systems
    • 21: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 22: Thermal Properties of Materials
    • 22.1: Heat Capacity and Specific Heat
    • 22.2: Thermal Expansion
    • 22.3: Thermal Conductivity
    • 22.4: Thermal Shock
    • 22: Chapter Quiz

  • Chapter 23: Corrosion and Wear
    • 23.1: Chemical Corrosion
    • 23.2: Electrochemical Corrosion
    • 23.3: The Electrode Potential in Electrochemical Cells
    • 23.4: The Corrosion Current and Polarization
    • 23.5: Types of Electrochemical Corrosion
    • 23.6: Protection Against Electrochemical Corrosion
    • 23.7: Microbial Degradation and Biodegradable Polymers
    • 23.8: Oxidation and Other Gas Reactions
    • 23.9: Wear and Erosion
    • 23: Chapter Quiz


The Science and Engineering of Materials, Enhanced, 7th Edition, by Donald R. Askeland and Wendelin J. Wright with WebAssign digital resources, helps future engineers understand the relationships between structure, processing, and properties of materials. This science-based approach highlights how the structure of materials at various length scales gives rise to materials properties. Updates emphasize how the connection between structure and properties leads to the synthesis of new materials and new applications of existing materials. Comprehensive coverage offers the flexibility to emphasize a general overview of materials, mechanical behavior, or physical properties. In addition, WebAssign online resources let instructors easily customize this edition to course needs.

Meet The Authors
Donald R. Askeland, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Emeritus

Dr. Donald R. Askeland joined the University of Missouri-Rolla (now the Missouri University of Science and Technology) in 1970 after obtaining his Ph.D. in metallurgical engineering from the University of Michigan. His primary interest is teaching, which has resulted in a variety of campus, university and industry awards as well as the development of this well-respected text. Dr. Askeland is also active in research involving metals casting and metals joining. His focus is primarily in the production, treatment, and joining of cast irons, gating and fluidity of aluminum alloys, and optimization of casting processes. Additional work has concentrated on lost foam casting, permanent mold casting, and investment casting. Much of his work is interdisciplinary, providing data for creating computer models and validation of such models.

Wendelin J. Wright, Bucknell University

Dr. Wendelin Wright is a professor at Bucknell University with a joint appointment in the departments of mechanical engineering and chemical engineering. She received her B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. in materials science and engineering from Stanford University. Prior to assuming her current position, Dr. Wright served as a faculty member at Santa Clara University. Her research interests focus on the mechanical behavior of materials, particularly those of metallic glasses. She is the recipient of the 2003 Walter J. Gores Award for Excellence in Teaching (Stanford University's highest teaching honor), a 2005 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, and a 2010 National Science Foundation CAREER Award. Dr. Wright is a licensed professional engineer in metallurgy in California and a fellow of ASM International.

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Group Quantity Questions
Chapter 1: Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering
1.1 1 001 002 003 004
1.2 7 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016
1.3 017
1.4 1 018 019
1.5 2 020 021 022
1.6 7 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035
Chapter 2: Atomic Structure
2.1 3 001 002 003 004 005
2.2 3 006 007 008
2.3 6 009 010 011 012 013 014
2.4 1 015 016 017 018
2.5 11 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034
2.6 7 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042 043 044 045 046 047
2.7 048 049 050
Chapter 3: Atomic and Ionic Arrangements
3.1 4 001 002 003 004 005 010
3.2 2 006 007 008 009
3.3 17 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035
3.4 5 036 037 038 039 040 041 042 043 044 045
3.5 20 046 047 048 049 050 051 052 053 054 055 056 057 058 059 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 068 069 070 071 072 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 080
3.6 2 081 082 083
3.7 4 084 085 086 087 088 089 090 091 092 093
3.8 1 094 095
3.9 4 096 097 098 099 100 101
Chapter 4: Imperfections in the Atomic and lonic Arrangements
4.1 9 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015
4.2 2 016 017 018 019
4.3 5 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032
4.4 5 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040
4.5 2 041 042 043 044
4.6 2 045 046 047 048
4.7 9 049 050 051 052 053 054 055 056 057 058 059 060 061 062 063
4.8 3 064 065 066 067 068 069 070 071 072 073 074
Chapter 5: Atom and Ion Movements in Materials
5.1 2 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008
5.2 3 009 010 011 012
5.3 1 013 014 015
5.4 6 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025
5.5 8 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039
5.6 1 040 041 042 043 044 045
5.7 046 047 048
5.8 16 049 050 051 052 053 054 055 056 057 058 059 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 068 069 070 071
5.9 3 072 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 080
Chapter 6: Mechanical Properties: Part One
6.1 001 002 003
6.2 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012
6.3 013 014 015 016 017
6.4 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034
6.5 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042
6.6 043 044 045 046 047 048 049 050 051 052
6.7 053 054 055 056 057 058 059
6.8 060 061 062
6.9 063 064 065 066
6.10 067 068 069 070 071 072 073 074 075
6.11 076
6.12 077 078 079 080 081 082
Chapter 7: Mechanical Properties: Part Two
7.1 001 002 003 004 005 006
7.2 007 008 009 010 011
7.3 012 013 014
7.4 015 016 017 018
7.5 019 020 021 022 023 024 025
7.6 026
7.7 027 044
7.8 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042 043
7.9 045 046 047 048 049
7.10 050 051 052 053 054
7.11 055 056 057 058 059 060 061 062 063
Chapter 8: Strain Hardening and Annealing
8.1 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015
8.2 016 017 018 019 020 021
8.3 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038
8.4 039 040 041 042 043 044 045 046 047 048
8.5 049 050 051 052 053 054 055
8.6 056 057 058 059 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 068 069 070 071
8.7 072 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 080
8.8 081 082 083 084
8.9 085 086
Chapter 9: Principles of Solidification
9.1 001 002 003
9.2 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022
9.3 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031
9.4 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040
9.5 041 042 043 044 045 046 047 048 049 050 051 052 053 054 055
9.6 056 057 058 059 060 061 062 063
9.7 064 065 066
9.8 067 068 069 070 071 072 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 080 081 082 083 084 085 086 087 088
9.9 089 090 091 092 093
9.10 094 095 096 097 098 099
9.11 100 101
9.12 102 103 104 105
9.13 106 107 108 109 110
Chapter 10: Solid Solutions and Phase Equilibrium
10.1 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013
10.2 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023
10.3 024 025 026 027 028 029 030
10.4 031 032 033 034 035 036 037
10.5 038 039 040 041 042 043 044 045 046 047 048 049 050 051 052 053 054 055 056 057 058 059 060 061 062 063 064 065
10.6 066 067
10.7 068 069 070 071 072 073 074 075 076 077
10.8 078 079 080 081 082 083 084 085 086 087
Chapter 11: Dispersion Strengthening and Eutectic Phase Diagrams
11.1 001
11.2 002 003 004 005
11.3 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016
11.4 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042
11.5 043 044 045 046 047
11.6 048 049 050
11.7 051
11.8 052
Chapter 12: Dispersion Strengthening by Phase Transformations and Heat Treatment
12.1 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009
12.2 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017
12.3 018 019 020 021 022
12.4 023 024 025
12.5 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033
12.6 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042 043
12.7 044 045 046
12.8 047 048 049 050
12.9 051 052 053 054 055 056 057 058 059 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 068 069 070 071 072 073 074
12.10 075 076 077 078 079 080 081 082 083 084 085 086 087 088 089 090 091 092
12.11 093 094 095 096 097 098 099 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114
12.12 115 116 117
Chapter 13: Heat Treatment of Steels and Cast Irons
13.1 001 002 003 004 005 006 007
13.2 008 010
13.3 009 011 012 013 014 015 016 017
13.4 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026
13.5 027 028
13.6 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041
13.7 042
13.8 043 044 045
13.9 046 047 048
13.10 049 050 051 052 053
13.11 054 055 056 057 058
Chapter 14: Nonferrous Alloys
14.1 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012
14.2 013 014 015 016
14.3 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024
14.4 025 026 027
14.5 028 029 030 031
14.6 032 033 034 035 036
Chapter 15: Ceramics
15.1 001 002 003 004 005
15.2 006 007 008 009 010 011
15.3 012 013 014
15.4 015 016 017 018 019 020
15.5 021 022 023 024 025
15.6 026 027 028 029 030 031
15.7 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042
15.8 043 044 045 046
15.10 047
15.11 048 049
Chapter 16: Polymers
16.1 001 002 003 004
16.2 005 006 007 008
16.3 009 010
16.4 011 012 013 014 015 016 017
16.5 018
16.6 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029
16.7 030 031 032 033
16.8 034 035
16.9 036 037 038 039
Chapter 17: Composites: Teamwork and Synergy in Materials
17.1 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012
17.2 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022
17.3 023 024 025 026
17.4 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041
17.5 042 043 044 045 046 047 048
17.6 049 050 051
17.7 052 053 054 055 056 057
Chapter 18: Construction Materials
18.2 001 002 003 004
18.3 005
18.4 006 007 008 009
18.6 010
18.7 011 012 013 014
Chapter 19: Electronic Materials
19.1 001
19.3 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024
19.4 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041
19.8 042 043 044 045 046
19.10 047 048 049 050 051 052 053
19.11 054 055 056 057 058
Chapter 20: Magnetic Materials
20.1 001 002
20.2 003 004 005 006 007
20.3 008
20.4 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 036 037
20.5 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033
20.6 034
20.7 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042 043
20.8 044 045 046 047 048 049 050 051 052 053 054 055
Chapter 21: Photonic Materials
21.1 009 010
21.2 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024
21.3 025 026 027
21.4 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042 043 044 045 046 047 048 049 050 051
21.5 052 053
Chapter 22: Thermal Properties of Materials
22.1 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010
22.2 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024
22.3 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035
Chapter 23: Corrosion and Wear
23.1 002
23.2 001 003 004
23.3 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018
23.5 019 020 021
23.6 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037
23.8 038 039 040 041
Total 185 (1249)