Principles of Geotechnical Engineering 10th edition

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Braja M. Das
Publisher: Cengage Learning

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  • Das Principles of Geotechnical Engineering - 10e

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  • Chapter 1: Geotechnical Engineering—A Historical Perspective
    • 1.1: Introduction
    • 1.2: Geotechnical Engineering Prior to the 18th Century
    • 1.3: Preclassical Period of Soil Mechanics (1700–1776)
    • 1.4: Classical Soil Mechanics–Phase I (1776–1856)
    • 1.5: Classical Soil Mechanics–Phase II (1856–1910)
    • 1.6: Modern Soil Mechanics (1910–1927)
    • 1.7: Geotechnical Engineering after 1927
    • 1.8: Geosynthetics and Civil Engineering Construction
    • 1.9: End of an Era
    • 1: Chapter Quiz (10)

  • Chapter 2: Origin of Soil and Grain Size
    • 2.1: Introduction
    • 2.2: Rock Cycle and the Origin of Soil
    • 2.3: Rock-Forming Minerals, Rock, and Rock Structures
    • 2.4: Soil-Particle Size
    • 2.5: Clay Minerals
    • 2.6: Specific Gravity (GS)
    • 2.7: Mechanical Analysis of Soil (5)
    • 2.8: Particle-Size Distribution Curve (7)
    • 2.9: Particle Shape
    • 2.10: Summary
    • 2: Chapter Quiz (25)

  • Chapter 3: Weight–Volume Relationships
    • 3.1: Introduction
    • 3.2: Weight–Volume Relationships
    • 3.3: Relationships among Unit Weight, Void Ratio, Moisture Content, and Specific Gravity (19)
    • 3.4: Relationships among Unit Weight, Porosity, and Moisture Content (2)
    • 3.5: Various Unit Weight Relationships
    • 3.6: Relative Density (3)
    • 3.7: Comments on emax and emin
    • 3.8: Correlations between emax, emin, emaxemin, and Median Grain Size (D50)
    • 3.9: Summary
    • 3: Chapter Quiz (16)

  • Chapter 4: Plasticity and Structure of Soil
    • 4.1: Introduction
    • 4.2: Liquid Limit (LL) (2)
    • 4.3: Plastic Limit (PL) (2)
    • 4.4: Plasticity Index
    • 4.5: Plasticity Chart
    • 4.6: Shrinkage Limit (SL) (2)
    • 4.7: Liquidity Index and Consistency Index (3)
    • 4.8: Activity
    • 4.9: Soil Structure (1)
    • 4.10: Summary
    • 4: Chapter Quiz (22)

  • Chapter 5: Engineering Classification of Soil
    • 5.1: Introduction
    • 5.2: AASHTO Classification System (3)
    • 5.3: Unified Soil Classification System (3)
    • 5.4: Comparison between the AASHTO and Unified Systems
    • 5.5: Summary
    • 5: Chapter Quiz (22)

  • Chapter 6: Soil Compaction
    • 6.1: Introduction (5)
    • 6.2: Compaction—General Principles
    • 6.3: Standard Proctor Test (5)
    • 6.4: Factors Affecting Compaction
    • 6.5: Modified Proctor Test
    • 6.6: Empirical Relationships (2)
    • 6.7: Structure of Compacted Clay Soil
    • 6.8: Effect of Compaction on Cohesive Soil Properties
    • 6.9: Field Compaction
    • 6.10: Specifications for Field Compaction
    • 6.11: Determination of Field Unit Weight of Compaction (1)
    • 6.12: Evaluation of Soils as Compaction Material
    • 6.13: Compaction of Organic Soil and Waste Materials
    • 6.14: Special Compaction Techniques (2)
    • 6.15: Summary
    • 6: Chapter Quiz (30)

  • Chapter 7: Permeability
    • 7.1: Introduction
    • 7.2: Bernoulli's Equation
    • 7.3: Darcy's Law (3)
    • 7.4: Hydraulic Conductivity
    • 7.5: Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity (6)
    • 7.6: Relationships for Hydraulic Conductivity—Granular Soil (4)
    • 7.7: Relationships for Hydraulic Conductivity—Cohesive Soils (2)
    • 7.8: Directional Variation of Permeability
    • 7.9: Equivalent Hydraulic Conductivity in Stratified Soil (3)
    • 7.10: Experimental Verification of Equivalent Hydraulic Conductivity
    • 7.11: Permeability Test in the Field by Pumping from Wells
    • 7.12: Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Clayey Soils
    • 7.13: Summary
    • 7: Chapter Quiz (18)

  • Chapter 8: Seepage
    • 8.1: Introduction
    • 8.2: Laplace's Equation of Continuity
    • 8.3: Continuity Equation for Solution of Simple Flow Problems
    • 8.4: Flow Nets
    • 8.5: Seepage Calculation from a Flow Net (4)
    • 8.6: Flow Nets in Anisotropic Soil
    • 8.7: Mathematical Solution for Seepage (2)
    • 8.8: Uplift Pressure under Hydraulic Structures (1)
    • 8.9: Seepage through an Earth Dam on an Impervious Base (2)
    • 8.10: L. Casagrande's Solution for Seepage through an Earth Dam (2)
    • 8.11: Pavlovsky's Solution for Seepage through an Earth Dam (1)
    • 8.12: Plotting of Phreatic Line for Seepage through an Earth Dam
    • 8.13: Filter Design
    • 8.14: Summary
    • 8: Chapter Quiz (12)

  • Chapter 9: In Situ Stresses
    • 9.1: Introduction (2)
    • 9.2: Stresses in Saturated Soil without Seepage (4)
    • 9.3: Stresses in Saturated Soil with Upward Seepage (5)
    • 9.4: Stresses in Saturated Soil with Downward Seepage
    • 9.5: Seepage Force
    • 9.6: Heaving in Soil Due to Flow around Sheet Piles (1)
    • 9.7: Use of Filters to Increase the Factor of Safety against Heave (1)
    • 9.8: Effective Stress in Partially Saturated Soil
    • 9.9: Capillary Rise in Soils (1)
    • 9.10: Effective Stress in the Zone of Capillary Rise
    • 9.11: Summary
    • 9: Chapter Quiz (18)

  • Chapter 10: Stresses in a Soil Mass
    • 10.1: Introduction
    • 10.2: Normal and Shear Stresses on a Plane (4)
    • 10.3: The Pole Method of Finding Stresses along a Plane (2)
    • 10.4: Stresses Caused by a Vertical Point Load (4)
    • 10.5: Stresses Caused by a Horizontal Point Load (1)
    • 10.6: Vertical Stress Caused by a Vertical Line Load
    • 10.7: Vertical Stress Caused by a Horizontal Line Load
    • 10.8: Vertical Stress Caused by a Vertical Strip Load (Finite Width and Infinite Length) (2)
    • 10.9: Vertical Stress Caused by a Horizontal Strip Load
    • 10.10: Linearly Increasing Vertical Loading on an Infinite Strip (1)
    • 10.11: Symmetrical Vertical Triangular Strip Load on the Surface
    • 10.12: Vertical Stress Due to Embankment Loading (2)
    • 10.13: Vertical Stress below the Center of a Uniformly Loaded Circular Area (2)
    • 10.14: Vertical Stress at Any Point below a Uniformly Loaded Circular Area (2)
    • 10.15: Vertical Stress Increase below a Flexible Circular Area—Parabolic and Conical Loading
    • 10.16: Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly Loaded Area (2)
    • 10.17: Influence Chart for Vertical Pressure (1)
    • 10.18: Summary
    • 10: Chapter Quiz (10)

  • Chapter 11: Compressibility of Soil—Elastic Settlement
    • 11.1: Introduction
    • 11.2: Contact Pressure and Settlement Profile
    • 11.3: Relations for Elastic Settlement Calculation (2)
    • 11.4: Improved Relationship for Elastic Settlement (1)
    • 11.5: Settlement of Foundation on Saturated Clay
    • 11.6: Summary
    • 11: Chapter Quiz (7)

  • Chapter 12: Consolidation
    • 12.1: Introduction
    • 12.2: Fundamentals of Consolidation
    • 12.3: One-Dimensional Laboratory Consolidation Test
    • 12.4: Void Ratio–Pressure Plots
    • 12.5: Normally Consolidated and Overconsolidated Clays
    • 12.6: General Comments on Conventional Consolidation Test
    • 12.7: Effect of Disturbance on Void Ratio–Pressure Relationship
    • 12.8: Calculation of Settlement from One-Dimensional Primary Consolidation (11)
    • 12.9: Correlations for Compression Index (Cc)
    • 12.10: Correlations for Swell Index (Cs)
    • 12.11: Secondary Consolidation Settlement
    • 12.12: Time Rate of Consolidation (8)
    • 12.13: Determination of Coefficient of Consolidation
    • 12.14: Calculation of Consolidation Settlement under a Foundation (1)
    • 12.15: Methods for Accelerating Consolidation Settlement
    • 12.16: Precompression
    • 12.17: A Case History—Settlement Due to a Preload Fill for Construction of Tampa VA Hospital
    • 12.18: Summary
    • 12: Chapter Quiz (23)

  • Chapter 13: Shear Strength of Soil
    • 13.1: Introduction
    • 13.2: Mohr–Coulomb Failure Criterion
    • 13.3: Inclination of the Plane of Failure Caused by Shear (1)
    • 13.4: Laboratory Test for Determination of Shear Strength Parameters
    • 13.5: Direct Shear Test (4)
    • 13.6: Drained Direct Shear Test on Saturated Sand and Clay
    • 13.7: General Comments on Direct Shear Test
    • 13.8: Triaxial Shear Test—General
    • 13.9: Consolidated-Drained Triaxial Test (5)
    • 13.10: Consolidated-Undrained Triaxial Test (7)
    • 13.11: General Comments on ϕ'cv for Granular Soil
    • 13.12: Unconsolidated-Undrained Triaxial Test (1)
    • 13.13: Unconfined Compression Test on Saturated Clay (1)
    • 13.14: Empirical Relationships between Undrained Cohesion (cu) and Effective Overburden Pressure (σ'o)
    • 13.15: Sensitivity and Thixotropy of Clay
    • 13.16: Strength Anisotropy in Clay
    • 13.17: Vane Shear Test (1)
    • 13.18: Other Methods for Determining Undrained Shear Strength
    • 13.19: Stress Path (1)
    • 13.20: Shear Strength of Unsaturated Soil
    • 13.21: Summary
    • 13: Chapter Quiz (28)

  • Chapter 14: Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest, Rankine, and Coulomb
    • 14.1: Introduction
    • 14.2: At-Rest, Active, and Passive Pressures
    • 14.3: Earth Pressure At-Rest (4)
    • 14.4: Earth Pressure At-Rest for Partially Submerged Soil
    • 14.5: Rankine's Theory of Active Pressure
    • 14.6: Theory of Rankine's Passive Pressure
    • 14.7: Yielding of Wall of Limited Height
    • 14.8: A Generalized Case for Rankine Active and Passive Pressure—Granular Backfill (4)
    • 14.9: Diagrams for Lateral Earth-Pressure Distribution against Retaining Walls with Vertical Back (14)
    • 14.10: Coulomb's Active Pressure (1)
    • 14.11: Coulomb's Passive Pressure
    • 14.12: Active Force on Retaining Walls with Earthquake Forces (Granular Backfill) (1)
    • 14.13: Active Pressure on Retaining Wall with a c'ϕ' Backfill Considering Earthquake Forces (2)
    • 14.14: Common Types of Retaining Walls in the Field
    • 14.15: Summary
    • 14: Chapter Quiz (19)

  • Chapter 15: Lateral Earth Pressure: Curved Failure Surface
    • 15.1: Introduction
    • 15.2: Retaining Walls with Friction
    • 15.3: Properties of a Logarithmic Spiral
    • 15.4: Procedure for Determination of Passive Earth Pressure (Pp)—Cohesionless Backfill
    • 15.5: Coefficient of Passive Earth Pressure (Kp) (7)
    • 15.6: Caquot and Kerisel Solution for Passive Earth Pressure (Granular Backfill) (3)
    • 15.7: Passive Force on Walls with Seepage (1)
    • 15.8: Braced Cuts—General
    • 15.9: Determination of Active Thrust on Bracing Systems of Open Cuts—Granular Soil (1)
    • 15.10: Determination of Active Thrust on Bracing Systems for Cuts—Cohesive Soil
    • 15.11: Pressure Variation for Design of Sheetings, Struts, and Wales (2)
    • 15.12: Summary
    • 15: Chapter Quiz (13)

  • Chapter 16: Slope Stability
    • 16.1: Introduction
    • 16.2: Factor of Safety
    • 16.3: Stability of Infinite Slopes (2)
    • 16.4: Infinite Slope with Steady-state Seepage (3)
    • 16.5: Finite Slopes—General
    • 16.6: Analysis of Finite Slopes with Plane Failure Surfaces (Culmann's Method) (5)
    • 16.7: Analysis of Finite Slopes with Circular Failure Surfaces—General
    • 16.8: Mass Procedure—Slopes in Homogeneous Clay Soil with ϕ = 0 (5)
    • 16.9: Mass Procedure—Stability of Saturated Clay Slope (ϕ = 0 Condition) with Earthquake Forces (1)
    • 16.10: Mass Procedure—Slopes in Homogeneous c'ϕ' Soil (4)
    • 16.11: Taylor's Slope Stability Chart Combined with Earthquake Effects (c'ϕ' Soils) (1)
    • 16.12: Ordinary Method of Slices (1)
    • 16.13: Bishop's Simplified Method of Slices
    • 16.14: Stability Analysis by Method of Slices for Steady-State Seepage
    • 16.15: A Case History of Slope Failure
    • 16.16: Solutions for Steady-State Seepage (4)
    • 16.17: Morgenstern's Method of Slices for Rapid Drawdown Condition
    • 16.18: Fluctuation of Factor of Safety of Slopes in Clay Embankment on Saturated Clay
    • 16.19: Summary
    • 16: Chapter Quiz (14)

  • Chapter 17: Soil-Bearing Capacity for a Shallow Foundation
    • 17.1: Introduction
    • 17.2: Ultimate Soil-Bearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations
    • 17.3: Terzaghi's Ultimate Bearing Capacity Equation (7)
    • 17.4: Effect of Groundwater Table (3)
    • 17.5: Factor of Safety
    • 17.6: General Bearing Capacity Equation (2)
    • 17.7: Meyerhof's Bearing Capacity, Shape, and Depth Factors
    • 17.8: A Case History for Evaluation of the Ultimate Bearing Capacity
    • 17.9: Ultimate Load for Shallow Footings under Eccentric Load (One-Way Eccentricity) (3)
    • 17.10: Continuous Footing under Eccentrically Inclined Load (1)
    • 17.11: Bearing Capacity of Sand Based on Settlement
    • 17.12: Summary
    • 17: Chapter Quiz (17)

  • Chapter 18: Subsoil Exploration
    • 18.1: Introduction
    • 18.2: Planning for Soil Exploration
    • 18.3: Boring Methods
    • 18.4: Common Sampling Methods
    • 18.5: Sample Disturbance (2)
    • 18.6: Correlations for N60 in Cohesive Soil
    • 18.7: Correlations for Standard Penetration Number in Granular Soil (7)
    • 18.8: Other In Situ Tests
    • 18.9: Vane Shear Test
    • 18.10: Borehole Pressuremeter Test
    • 18.11: Cone Penetration Test (5)
    • 18.12: Rock Coring (1)
    • 18.13: Soil Exploration Report
    • 18.14: Summary
    • 18: Chapter Quiz (18)

  • Chapter 19: An Introduction to Geosynthetics
    • 19.1: Introduction
    • 19.2: Geotextile
    • 19.3: Geogrid
    • 19.4: Geomembrane
    • 19.5: Geonet
    • 19.6: Geosynthetic Clay Liner
    • 19.7: Summary
    • 19: Chapter Quiz (20)


Provide a valuable overview of soil properties and mechanics together with coverage of today's field practices and basic engineering procedures with Principles of Geotechnical Engineering, 10th Edition, by Braja M. Das. This market-leading introduction to geotechnical engineering is ideal for the introductory course taken by most civil engineering students. This edition provides the background students need for advanced design-oriented courses as well as professional practice. Updates address seepage, vertical stress in soil mass, lateral earth pressure and earthquake forces, elastic settlement, shear strength of soil, unit weights of soil and plasticity. The practical, application-oriented approach integrates comprehensive discussions, detailed explanations and updated or new practice problems. Almost 200 new or updated example problems help ensure understanding. This edition also offers more figures and worked-out problems than any other book for this course. WebAssign digital resources further assist students in mastering this material.

Meet the Author
Braja M. Das, California State University, Sacramento
Dr. Braja Das is Dean Emeritus of the College of Engineering and Computer Science at California State University, Sacramento. He received his M.S. in civil engineering from the University of Iowa and his Ph.D. in geotechnical engineering from the University of Wisconsin. He is the author of a number of geotechnical engineering texts and reference books and has written more than 250 technical papers in the area of geotechnical engineering. Dr. Das' primary areas of research include shallow foundations, earth anchors and geosynthetics. He is a fellow and life member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, life member of the American Society for Engineering Education and an emeritus member of the Stabilization of Geomaterials and Recycled Materials of the Transportation Research Board of the National Research Council. He has received numerous awards for teaching excellence, including the AMOCO Foundation Award, the AT&T Award for Teaching Excellence from the American Society for Engineering Education, the Ralph Teetor Award from the Society of Automotive Engineers and the Distinguished Achievement Award for Teaching Excellence from the University of Texas at El Paso.

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Group Quantity Questions
Chapter 1: Geotechnical Engineering—A Historical Perspective
1.CQ 10 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010
Chapter 2: Origin of Soil and Grain Size
2.CQ 25 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025
2.7 5 007 008 009 010 011
2.8 7 001 002 003 004 005 006 012
Chapter 3: Weight–Volume Relationships
3.CQ 16 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016
3.3 19 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 022 023
3.4 2 001 011
3.6 3 011 020 021 024
Chapter 4: Plasticity and Structure of Soil
4.CQ 22 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022
4.2 2 007 008
4.3 2 001 003
4.6 2 005 006
4.7 3 002 004 009
4.9 1 010
Chapter 5: Engineering Classification of Soil
5.CQ 22 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022
5.2 3 001 002 003
5.3 3 004 005 006
Chapter 6: Soil Compaction
6.CQ 30 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030
6.1 5 006 007 008 012 013
6.3 5 001 002 003 004 005
6.6 2 009 010
6.11 1 014
6.14 2 015 016
Chapter 7: Permeability
7.CQ 18 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018
7.3 3 007 008 009
7.5 6 001 002 003 004 005 006
7.6 4 010 011 012 013
7.7 2 014 015
7.9 3 016 017 018
Chapter 8: Seepage
8.CQ 12 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012
8.5 4 001 002 004 006
8.7 2 003 007
8.8 1 005
8.9 2 008 010
8.10 2 009 011
8.11 1 012
Chapter 9: In Situ Stresses
9.CQ 18 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018
9.1 2 011 012
9.2 4 001 002 003 004
9.3 5 005 006 007 008 009
9.6 1 014
9.7 1 013
9.9 1 010
Chapter 10: Stresses in a Soil Mass
10.CQ 10 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010
10.2 4 001 002 003 004
10.3 2 005 006
10.4 4 007 008 009 010
10.5 1 011
10.8 2 012 013
10.10 1 023
10.12 2 014 015
10.13 2 016 021
10.14 2 017 022
10.16 2 019 020
10.17 1 018
Chapter 11: Compressibility of Soil—Elastic Settlement
11.CQ 7 001 002 003 004 005 006 007
11.3 2 001 002
11.4 1 003
Chapter 12: Consolidation
12.CQ 23 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023
12.8 11 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 011 020
12.12 8 010 012 013 014 015 016 017 018
12.14 1 019
Chapter 13: Shear Strength of Soil
13.CQ 28 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028
13.3 1 002
13.5 4 001 003 004 005
13.9 5 006 007 008 012 013
13.10 7 009 010 011 014 015 016 017
13.12 1 021
13.13 1 018
13.17 1 020
13.19 1 019
Chapter 14: Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest, Rankine, and Coulomb
14.CQ 19 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019
14.3 4 001 002 003 004
14.8 4 017 018 021 024
14.9 14 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 019 020
14.10 1 022
14.12 1 023
14.13 2 025 026
Chapter 15: Lateral Earth Pressure: Curved Failure Surface
15.CQ 13 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013
15.5 7 001 002 003 004 005 006 007
15.6 3 008 009 010
15.7 1 011
15.9 1 012
15.11 2 013 014
Chapter 16: Slope Stability
16.CQ 14 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014
16.3 2 001 002
16.4 3 003 004 005
16.6 5 006 007 008 009 010
16.8 5 011 012 013 014 015
16.9 1 016
16.10 4 017 018 019 020
16.11 1 021
16.12 1 022
16.16 4 023 024 025 026
Chapter 17: Soil-Bearing Capacity for a Shallow Foundation
17.CQ 17 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017
17.3 7 001 002 003 004 005 006 008
17.4 3 007 009 010
17.6 2 011 013
17.9 3 012 014 015
17.10 1 016
Chapter 18: Subsoil Exploration
18.CQ 18 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018
18.5 2 001 002
18.7 7 003 004 005 006 007 008 009
18.11 5 010 011 012 013 014
18.12 1 015
Chapter 19: An Introduction to Geosynthetics
19.CQ 20 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020
Total 617 (1)